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'Gazetteer of Arabia Vol. II' [‎1363] (418/688)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (341 folios). It was created in 1917. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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end-'*' 1 '
in the tract with which it deals, and it remains to consider here how far the Ottoman
Government have been successful in enforcing their pretensions. a ,
In 1904 when a state of war had for some years prevailed between Ibn Sa ud, ruler
of Southern Najd, and Ibn Rashid, the Amir of Jabal Shammar, the Turks intervened
with a military force on the side of Ibn Rashid ; but they were defeated in two actions
bv the followers of Ibn Sa'ud and the people of Qasim, nor were these reverses ever made
good on the field of battle. Early in 1905, however, Ottoman officials at Basrah suceed-
S inducing Ibn Sa'ud to negotiate. The result of the discussions became apparent
In April 1905 when Qasim was formally occupied by the Turks and it was understood
that Ibn Sa'ud had professed allegiance to the Sultan ; the effect, Ibn Rashid e n 3
already a Turkish vaL, was to convert the whole of Central Arabia at least m name,
into a" Turkish province. A Turkish cantonment was established at Shaihiyah inQasi m
and Turkish garrisons of 100 men each were placed in the towns of Anaizah and Burai-
dah ; but no attempt was made, apparently, to coccupy any point either m Jabal Sham-
mar or in Southern Najd. The design of the Porte was plainly to create out of Qas.m
a neutr'utate garrisoned by themselves, which should serve to separate the territories
of the rival native powers in Central Arabia and prevent their committing aggression
noon one another • and the Turkish Government probably hoped that their own command
ing position between the disputants would throw the balance of power into their hands
and enable them to dominate, with an insignificant military force, the politics of Central
Arabia So far did the confidence of the Turks in their scheme extend that they pro
ceeded to parcel out the country into civil administrative divisions as if it had actually
been incorporated with the Ottoman dominions. Southern ^ajd was declared to be a
Qadha having its Markaz or headquarters at Riyadh and Ibn Sa ud for Qaim-Maqam.
In Qa^m Buraidah and the places dependent on it were erected_ into a Qadha under
Salih-bin-H asan -bin-Mahanna, Shaikh of Buraidah, as Qaim -Maqam ; and at the same
Sne -AnSand its villages were constituted a
bin ' Abdullah -bin-Yahya, Shaikh of 'Anaizah, was appointed the fir.t Mud r.
QWutMaqam of Southern Najd and the - d . ^o~arda
nallv made subject to the authority of the Wall of Basrah ; but the relations towards
each oXr of the last two do not seem to have been defined ; and the titles of all as soon
became manifest, were honorific and implied no real subordination to the Porte. iSo
Turkish civil officials from abroad were introduced into the new province, not even in o
its Qasim District: indeed the whole of the arrangements from the first were little better
than make-believe.
The results of the scheme were far, it may safely he said, from corresponding with the
anSipTtions of the projectors. The Turkish -d "betag
nfter it* institution employed to enforce compliance with Turkish policy, and, Deing
rfnTdlv reduced by desertions and deaths, it soon ceased to inspire awe or even respect
In April 1906 the son of Ibn Sa'ud, ignoring the presence of the Turks in Qas.m, attacked
and slew Ibn Rashid on the borders of that district; and a little later he seized and
denorted the Shaikh of Buraidah, who enjoyed, equally with his own father Ibn Sa ud,
the status of a Turkish Qaim -Maqam. The weakness of the Turks in Central Arabia
J i' that thev dared not even manifest their displeasure at these insulting acts ,
Td from the^at^it reports it would seem that their military strength in the country
soon after reached the vanishing point. • . i r u
, . . ^ rin^ not annear that the claim of the Turks to have establish-
I n the drcumstan a otectora t e , over Central Arabia was substantiated
ed effective sovereignly, ^ between Turk and the Alies ; on the contrary, it would
before the outbreak ° with fac ts, the whole of Central Arabia was independent
Arabian peninsula, as of all the Arab provinces
oi 1 Turktrempire. rests upon the outcome of the present contest.
v f 0 f a mor e distinctive term sanctioned by usage we are obliged to call by this
r ' ' i lacfp nf districts which form the southern part of Central Arabia and
name the dominions of the Wahhabi Amir. Middle Najd is better known
under "lie title of QasTm, and Northern Najd is generally referred to as Jabal

About this item


Volume II of III of the Gazetteer of Arabia. The Gazetteer is alphabetically-arranged and this volume contains entries K through to R.

The Gazetteer is an alphabetically-arranged compendium of the tribes, clans and geographical features (including towns, villages, lakes, mountains and wells) of Arabia that is contained within three seperate bound volumes. The entries range from short descriptions of one or two sentences to longer entries of several pages for places such as Iraq and Yemen.

A brief introduction states that the gazetteer was originally intended to deal with the whole of Arabia, "south of a line drawn from the head of the Gulf of 'Aqabah, through Ma'an, to Abu Kamal on the Euphrates, and to include Baghdad and Basrah Wilayats" and notes that before the gazetteer could be completed its publication was postponed and that therefore the three volumes that now form this file simply contain "as much of the MSS. [manuscript] as was ready at the time". It further notes that the contents have not been checked.

Extent and format
1 volume (341 folios)
Physical characteristics

Foliation: This volume's foliation system is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'Gazetteer of Arabia Vol. II' [‎1363] (418/688), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/16/2/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 30 March 2020]

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