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The record is made up of 1 volume (88 folios). It was created in 1913. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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the tribe as a whole. (The lines of migration of each tribe are given in
the table).
Customs .—The Qashqai resemble generally the Lur nomads of South-
West Persia. Their language is Turkish, though most tribesmen understand
Persian fairly well. In appearance they compare favourably with their Lur
compatriots : they seem on the whole to be taller and fairer than Bakhtiaris,
and certainly more so than Lurs. In religion they seem more orthodox,
♦ and less superstitious than their Lur neighbours ; ’Ali Illahis will not be
found among them, and Imamzadehs, Qadamgahs and Pirs are as noticeable
by their rarity in Pars, as by their frequency in the Luristan and the Bakh-
tiari countries.
The Qashqai, in their winter quarters at any rate, do not camp in the open
valleys. Their custom is to select secluded valleys and ravines on the hill
side, which are to some extent protected from the winter weather, and also
near water, and in such spots four, ten, twenty tents may be seen together.
The Qashqals are nomadic not only from traditional custom. Their tribal
wealth and food-supply depends so largely on their flocks and herds that the
necessity of leaving the * hot regions ’ before the grazing in the valleys has
been dried up, and of seeking fresh pastures is imperative, while the climate
of the “ Sarhad ” is too bitter during the winter months, and more firewood
can be obtained in the hills of the “ Garmsir.” Their sheep and goats not
only provide milk, meat, and clarified fat, which are staple items of their
food, but the wool and hair is used by the tribes for weaving their own
tents, coverings and carpets for sale in the towns, from which source each
tent derives a portion of its yearly income. In some “ tirehs ” the
poorest tribesmen are said to own 300 animals. Sheep too find a large sale
among the settled inhabitants of the south during the winter season.
Sub-divisions .—It is a well known tradition that the Qashqai were from
the beginning 44 ‘ tirehs ’ (branches or clans). Some of these have almost
disappeared, and others have dwindled to a few tents. Some ‘ tirehs ’
have been merged into larger branches : in times of stress large bodies of
the Qashqai have gone over to the Bakhtiari country, or, in a less degree,
to the Khamseh tribes, and become identified with those tribes. Severity
on the part of the Ilkhdnis, or partisan jealousies in the ‘tireh ’ itself, are
often the cause of secessions. On the other hand many of the ‘ tirehs ’ are
to-day composed of elements, in which little of the original Qashqai stock
can be traced, and much new blood has been imported. Thus the present
leading family of the Kashkuli clan came from the Zend tribe, originating
from near Kirmanshah. The Pars tribe called Bulvardi, " Arab ” tribes
like the Nafr, and Kuhgalu Lurs are to be found scattered amongst, and
incorporated in the Qashqai. Peasantry from a certain district will attach
themselves to the clan frequenting the district, and small sedentary tribes
are taken under the patronage of the Qashqai.
The original 44 ‘ tirehs ’ have therefore increased, but it is difficult to get
an accurate list of all. A list of 57 clans is given by the Fdrsndmeh (History
of Pars) written over 30 years ago. In January 1911 Saulat-ud-Dauleh,
llkhdni, gave Mr. Chick a list of 47 nomad, or partly nomad clans.

About this item


The volume consists of corrections to the Gazetteer of Persia Volume III (1910 Edition). This volume was produced in 1913 (4th series) by the General Staff, India.

The gazetteer includes entries on villages, towns, administrative divisions, districts, provinces, tribes, halting-places, religious sects, mountains, hills, streams, rivers, springs, wells, dams, passes, islands and bays. The entries provide details of latitude, longitude, and elevation for some places, and information on history, communications, agriculture, produce, population, health, water supply, topography, climate, military intelligence, coastal features, ethnography, trade, economy, administration and political matters.

Printed at the Government Monotype Press, Simla.

Extent and format
1 volume (88 folios)

The entries are arranged in alphabetical order from front to back, with cross-references where required.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 88; these numbers are printed or in pencil, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'CORRECTIONS TO GAZETTEER OF PERSIA. VOLUME III' [‎71r] (143/180), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/143, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 10 April 2020]

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