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Coll 20/10 'Muscat: S. W. Boundary of (Muscat-Aden): Spheres of Responsibility of the Air Authorities in Iraq and Aden' [‎27r] (53/200)

The record is made up of 1 file (98 folios). It was created in 26 Mar 1930-27 Jul 1947. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .

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Z1\
Copy of demi official letter dated the 10th January,
1947, from Colonel Bertram Thomas, O.B.B., Director, Kiddle
East Centre of Arab Studies, Jerusalem, to the Hon’ble
Lieutenant Colonel W. K. Hay, C.S.I.I C. I.Er. , Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency.
in tne Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. .
Your D.O. No. 1216-S, of the
an extract to P.A., Muscat, on the
1. The Mahra are not confined to the Aden Protectorate,
at least elements of the Mahra tribe range freely in the
steppe in the hinterland of the Dhofar Province as far west
as 56° 20 ,, and there are small settled elements in the
mountains. The following extract from a published work of
mine in the Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. xxiii
may help. (Incidentally their tongue, which I have written
a short grammar of, vide above, is, according to A1 Idnsi
(circa AD. 1100) a survival of Himyaritic . Quote :
f, The Mahra, who number many thousand men, extend
from Ras Nus and Jabal Zaulaul westwards through the
borderland of steppe and mountain to Wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. Rama, coming
down to the coast at Jadhib and beyond. Although
speaking the tongue Mahri throughout, east and west
wings of the tribe spring'from two distinct ancestors,
and today there is no paramount shaikh of the Mahra
with undisputed lineal title as is the case with many
tribes. Each section has its customary headman, though
one of these, by name Bir Afrair (Bir = (Ar.) Bin, in
the Hadara tongues), has a unique prestige and exacts
tribute from all except nomadic elements. The eastern ¥
wing of the Mahra - Beduin mostly, who in the harvest
season become frankincense pickers - claims descent _
from one Bir Boki, and this branch is known as Hasarit.
The western Mahra are largely settled, the coastal
elements are often fishermen, and a few merchants and
sailors are to be found among them."
2. As regards boundaries you will find a short
historical sketch of Dhofar on pp. 10 seq. of my "Arabia
Felix". The somewhat fortuitous way Dhofar came into
the Muscat Sultan 1 s hands 70 years or so ago probably
means that the Western boundary was always ill-defined,
if indeed it was defined at all. Before the. arrival on
the scene of European oil concessionaries, dotted lines
on maps had, as you know, little interest for Arab
rulers who thought in terms of revenue-producing-ports,
or the habitats (especially water-holes; of beduin tribes
owing them allegiance. The Mahra tribe is scarcely a
political entity but the beduin elements in the Eastern
ranges in the Sultan of Muscat's territory of Dhofar do
not, so far as I know, owe allegiance as do their settled
elements in the West to the Aden Government. I remember
exploring the Southern coast with the late Sultan of
Muscat in our state-ship "A1 Sa'id" as far West as what
we then considered the boundary, but I cannot for the
life of me remember the name of the point though I have
got an idea it was to the W r est of Rakhiyut. I must
have a note-book and sketch map somewhere in my
belongings either in Tangier or in storage in London, and
if I get a chance of getting access to them sometime
I will remember to send you along a note of anything of
relevant interest.
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Content

The file contains correspondence, minutes, and notes concerning the south-western boundary of the Sultan of Muscat's sovereignty. The question of the exact demarcation of the boundary was raised because of a need to set the administrative boundary between the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. in Muscat and the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in Aden and, later, the division of areas of responsibility between the air authorities in Iraq and Aden. In 1947 the question is raised again during a period of exploration for oil.

The file contains the following papers:

The principal correspondents are the Air Ministry, Political Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , Government of India (Foreign Department), Political Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. in Aden, Admiralty, India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , and the Political Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. in Muscat.

Extent and format
1 file (98 folios)
Arrangement

The file is arranged in chronological order from the back to the front.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence for this description commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at inside back cover with 100; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. A previous foliation sequence, which is present between ff 2-99 and is also circled, has been superseded and therefore crossed out.

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English in Latin script
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Coll 20/10 'Muscat: S. W. Boundary of (Muscat-Aden): Spheres of Responsibility of the Air Authorities in Iraq and Aden' [‎27r] (53/200), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/2962, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100042710134.0x000036> [accessed 4 March 2024]

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