Letters Outward

IOR/R/15/1/80

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The record is made up of 2 volumes (227 folios). It was created in 21 Jan 1839-17 Dec 1839. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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Content

The volumes consist of letters outwards from the British Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Most of these letters were originally penned by Samuel Hennell (Resident), with a few towards the end of the second volume penned by Thomas Edmunds (Assistant Resident). Most of these letters are addressed to John Pollard Willoughby, Secretary to the Government of Bombay in the Political and Secret Departments; Lestock Robert Reid, Acting Chief Secretary to the Bombay Government; George Barnes Brucks, Commodore of the Indian Naval Squadron in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; the Secret Committee of the Court of the Directors of the East India Company, London; and Robert Taylor, Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. in Turkish Arabia, Bagdad [Baghdad]. The remaining correspondence is directed towards various officers/officials/servants of the British Government and the East India Company. Some letters also have translations of correspondence to and from various rulers in and around the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. enclosed.

Much of the correspondence concerns the conquest of Nedgd [Najd] by Khorshed Pasha [Khūrshid Pāshā], Commander of Egyptian Forces in Central Arabia, and the establishment of Ameer Khalid [Amīr Khālid] — also known as Khaled ben Saood — as ruler of that province. Much of the correspondence therefore concerns itself with Khorshed Pasha's efforts to extend Egyptian influence throughout the rest of the Arabian Peninsula and therefore extend the power of its ruler Mahomed Ally Pasha [Muḥammad ‘Alī Pāshā]; the British are specifically concerned about Bahrein [Bahrain], Bagdad, Bussora [Basra], Koweit, and the various rulers of Oman submitting to becoming vassals of Egypt. Much of the subject matter therefore relates to the Resident trying to check the advancement of Egyptian power in order to maintain Britain's dominant position, its reputation, and prestige in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . A specific example being the removal of Sued ben Mootluk, an Agent to Khorshid Pasha operating in Oman; the agent was claiming to have been empowered to rule Oman on Khorshid Pasha's behalf.

Another major topic concerns political relations between Britain and Persia. A diplomatic rupture between the two states takes place, and all communications between the Resident and the Government of Fars is therefore suspended. The correspondence covers events in Southern Persia leading up to — and following — the removal of the British Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. from Bushire on 29 March 1839 to Karrack [Khārk, Jazīreh-ye]; a diary of events leading up to the removal of the Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. is enclosed. The correspondence also concerns itself with the British force stationed — without the permission of the Persian Government — on the island of Karrack, along with subsequent reports of disturbances surrounding Shiraz and Bushire.

Other matters featured in the volumes include a visit to the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. by Sir Frederick Maitland, Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies and China, aboard HMS Wellesley ; efforts by the British to prevent the abduction of Africans for sale as slaves in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; and discussions relating to the deployment of the ships of the Indian Naval Squadron in the Gulf.

It also contains material of a routine nature such as the transmission of letters, packets, and parcels; and the issuing of disbursements.

The volumes appear to have been subjected to a degree of weeding, as evidenced by the gaps present in the original pagination. As a result, some letters are only present as fragments (i.e. only the opening or ends of some letters remain).

Extent and format
2 volumes (227 folios)
Arrangement

The correspondence in the file has been bound in two volumes and arranged chronologically. In the first volume the correspondence runs from 21 January to 4 July 1839, and in the second volume from 25 June to 17 December 1839. The overlap is in consequence of the presence of enclosures to the final letter in volume one, which are transcribed at the start of volume two.

Physical characteristics

Condition: The volumes are by and large in good condition, though on a small number of folios the ink has faded; in consequence, the text is therefore difficult to read on these folios. A very small number of folios have also suffered physical damage at the edges, and therefore a small proportion of the text has been lost.

Foliation: The foliation sequence runs through two physical volumes. This sequence commences at the first folio of the volume one and terminates at the back cover of volume two; these numbers are written in pencil, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The volumes contain the following foliation corrections; f. 111, and ff. 111A-F.

Pagination: There is an original pagination sequence, which is written in ink, that is also present in the volumes between ff. 1-220; these numbers are located in the top outermost corner of each page. There are a large number of gaps in this sequence, indicating that a degree of weeding has been undertaken at some point in the past.

Written in
English in Latin script
Type
Letter book

Archive information for this record

Access & Reference

Original held at
British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers
Access conditions

Unrestricted

Archive reference
IOR/R/15/1/80

History of this record

Date(s)
21 Jan 1839-17 Dec 1839 (CE, Gregorian)

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Letters Outward, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/80, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100000000193.0x000035> [accessed 20 February 2020]

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