'Vol 282 Head IV, Volume 11 (eleven) Bahrein and Wahabee Complications'

IOR/R/15/1/179

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The record is made up of 2 volumes (354 folios). It was created in 26 Sep 1859-14 Jan 1862. It was written in English, Arabic and Turkish, Ottoman. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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Correspondence regarding relations between the people of Bahrein [Bahrain] and the Wahabees [Wahhabis] and the involvement of the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Captain (James) Felix Jones, in affairs.

The correspondence consists of letters and reports sent by Captain Jones to the Secretary to Government at Bombay (Henry Lacon Anderson, Alexander Kinloch Forbes) describing the situation in Bahrein in which an atmosphere of anxiety and alarm had arisen over reports that Mahomed ben Abdullah, Chief of Demaum [Dammam] was amassing men and boats for an attack on Bahrein, and detailing the response by Captain Jones to these reports, including the decision to send British vessels of war to help boost morale and assist in the defence of Bahrein; investigations made by these vessels into the forces massing to attack Bahrein; and the seizing of boats and vessels belonging to the Chief of Demaum and his supports. Also included is a copy of the Government resolution permitting Captain Jones to have Mahomed ben Abdullah and his supporters forcibly removed from Demaum.

Enclosed with them are copies of correspondence and reports on affairs at Bahrein including accounts of the forces massing at ports including Demaum and Katiff [Al Qaţīf], which were sent to and from the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. by Hajee Jassem [Haji Jasim], British Agent at Bahrain; Shaikh Mahomed ben Khalifah (also written bin Khuleefa) [Muḥammed bin Khalīfah Āl Khalīfah], Chief of Bahrein; Sheikh Alee bin Khuleefa [‘Alī bin Khalīfah Āl Khalīfah]; [Sheikh Mahomed ben Abdullah [Muḥammed bin‘Abdullāh], Chief of Demaum; Ameer Fysul ben Torkee [Faisal ibn Turki], Ruler of Nedjd [Najd]; The Senior Naval Officer Commanding the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Squadron (Charles Golding Constable, Charles John Cruttenden) ; Commander Philip William Fendell of HMS Falkland ; Commander Richard William Whish of HM Schooner Mahi ; and Commander William Balfour of HM Steam Frigate Semiramis .

Also included in the file is correspondence with Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson and Charles Alison, Her British Majesty's Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary at the Court of Persia, and Lewis Pelly, Charge d'Affaires at the Court of Persia, regarding Mirza Mehdi, Persian Agent for Foreign Affairs at Bushire, who is sent by the Prince Governor of Farsistan [Fārs] on a special mission to meet Ameer Fysul, Ruler of Nedjd [Najd] to discuss safe passage for Persian Pilgrims to Mecca, which the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. believes is also being used as an opportunity to discuss Bahrein, which the Persians and the Wahabees have both laid claim to. Further correspondence on the matter includes intelligence reports from the British Agent at Bahrein, Hajee Jassem, including the arrival of Turkish emissaries at Bahrein and the decision by the Shaikh of Bahrein to hoist the Persian Flag at his forts.

Later correspondence includes letters to and from Richard Rogers, Officiating Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Basreh [Basra], John McAdam Hyslop, Officiating Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. in Turkish Arabia, and Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, HBM's Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire regarding Turkish functionaries who had been sent on a mission from Basreh to Bahrein; and the raising of the Turkish flag at Bahrein. This correspondence also includes letters written in both English and Ottoman Turkish to the Governor-General of Baghdad, and copies of letters in Arabic from the Shaikh of Bahrein to the Pasha of Baghdad.

The file concludes with correspondence relating to Mahomed ben Khuleefa's attempts at retaliation, including blockading the Wahabee ports of Demaum and Katiff; and the decision in May 1861 to sign a convention and bond with the British Government:

Extent and format
2 volumes (354 folios)
Arrangement

The correspondence has been arranged chronologically according to the date of its receipt or despatch from the Political Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. in Bushire.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The foliation sequence runs across the two volumes, and is therefore split into two ranges ff. 1-182 & ff. 183-341. It commences at the first folio of writing in volume one and terminates at the last folio of writing in volume two. These numbers are written in pencil, and can be found in the top right hand corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Foliation errors: 1, 1A.

Written in
English, Arabic and Turkish, Ottoman in Latin and Arabic script
Type
Letter book

Archive information for this record

Access & Reference

Original held at
British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers
Access conditions

Unrestricted

Archive reference
IOR/R/15/1/179
Former external reference(s)
Volume 282

History of this record

Date(s)
26 Sep 1859-14 Jan 1862 (CE, Gregorian)

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'Vol 282 Head IV, Volume 11 (eleven) Bahrein and Wahabee Complications', British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/179, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100000000193.0x000098> [accessed 27 January 2020]

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