'File 9/3 Bahrain Reforms. Land Registration & Record of Rights'


Download PDF (87 MB)

Search within this record

The record is made up of 1 volume (102 folios). It was created in 23 Jun 1923-18 Dec 1927. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

About this record


The volume contains correspondence and papers relating to the issue of land rights and ownership in Bahrain.

The first part of the volume (folios 2-78) concern the organisation of a land survey in Bahrain. The Ruler of Bahrain, Shaikh Ḥamad bin ‘Īsá Āl Khalīfa, with the assistance of the Bahrain Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. (Major Clive Day), arranged with the Government of India’s Surveyor General ( E. A. Tandy) for a team of surveyors to come to Bahrain to survey the populated parts of the islands. A letter from Daly to the Surveyor General, dated 28 April 1925 (folios 28-30) provides details of the extent and character of the area to be surveyed. The survey was originally intended to take place during the winter of 1924/25, but was eventually delayed until the following year. A large portion of the correspondence relates to the costs of conducting the survey (including manpower, equipment, lodgings in Bahrain, food rations and passage from India), which were far greater than originally budgeted for by Sheikh Hamad. A revised proposal from the Surveyor General of India to Daly, dated 1 September 1925, gives details of the various costs of the survey (folios 54-56). Negotiations over the costs continued right up until the departure date of the surveying team from India to Bahrain, in October 1925. There is a copy of the deed (in Arabic) for the plot of land adjacent to the Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. at folio 80.

The second part of the volume (folios 81-99) concerns the implementation of a waqf department in Bahrain. The waqf is a form of religious endowment under Islamic law, usually involving the donation of buildings or land for religious or charitable purposes. The correspondence relates to Shaikh Ḥamad’s introduction of a waqf department, to address the reported mismanagement and misappropriation of waqf funds.

Extent and format
1 volume (102 folios)

The volume's contents are arranged in approximate chronological order, starting with the earliest items at the front and finishing with the latest items at the end. The items in the volume deal with two specific subjects, separated chronologically by two years, and by a divider-title sheet on folio 79.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The volume is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using circled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . There is an earlier foliation system using blue pencil numbers, that runs through a small part of the volume, from folios 2 to 4.

The following foliation anomalies occur: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 3a.

The following folios are foldouts: 32, 38-40, 43, 44, 54, 57-59, 64, 70, 74, 75, 80, 88, 97-99.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
Archival file

Archive information for this record

Access & Reference

Original held at
British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers
Access conditions


Archive reference
Former external reference(s)
Confidential Files: File 9/3

History of this record

23 Jun 1923-18 Dec 1927 (CE, Gregorian)

Related material

Use and share this record

Share this record
Cite this record in your research

'File 9/3 Bahrain Reforms. Land Registration & Record of Rights', British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/130, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100000000193.0x000361> [accessed 27 January 2020]

Link to this record
IIIF details

This record has a IIIF manifest available as follows. If you have a compatible viewer you can drag the icon to load it.https://www.qdl.qa/en/iiif/81055/vdc_100000000193.0x000361/manifestOpen in Universal viewerOpen in Mirador viewerMore options for embedding images