‘File 12/7 II Arrival of country craft from India’

IOR/R/15/2/1376

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The record is made up of 1 file (498 folios). It was created in 23 Feb 1924-4 Nov 1944. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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Content

The file comprises correspondence relating to the shipment and transhipment of cargo (chiefly rice, sugar, spices, piece goods) from India (Karachi) to the ports of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , chiefly Dubai, Katar [Qatar, also spelt Gutter, Quatter in the file] and Bahrain. The file is a direct chronological continuation of ‘File 12/7 I Shipping. Arrival of Sailing Crafts at Qatar and other places with Cargo.’ (IOR/R/15/2/1375). The file’s principal correspondents are: the Collector (and Assistant Collector) of Customs at Karachi; staff at the Political Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. in Bahrain; the Director of Customs at Bahrain (Claud Cranbrook Lewis DeGrenier; George William Reginald Smith); the Ruler of Qatar (Shaikh ‘Abdullāh bin Jāsim Āl Thānī); the Ruler of Dubai (Shaikh Sa‘id bin Maktūm Āl Maktūm).

The correspondence chiefly concerns routine enquires made about specific vessels travelling from India to the ports of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , and involves the delivery and return of export manifests. The enquiries begin with letters from the Collector (or Assistant Collector) of Customs, or other administrators, at Indian ports (Karachi, Bombay, Veraval) informing the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain of named vessels travelling to ports in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , with details of their cargo and cargo markings, and requesting confirmation of their arrival and the landing of their cargo. These letters are followed by enquiries made by the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. to the Director of Customs at Bahrain (for vessels travelling to Bahrain), the Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. Agent at Sharjah (for vessels travelling to the ports of the Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. ), and the Ruler of Qatar (for vessels travelling to Qatar), with further correspondence, including replies from the Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. Agent at Sharjah (in English and Arabic) and letters from the Rulers of Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Ajman, and replies from the Ruler of Qatar. Correspondence is concluded with a letter from the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain, back to the Collector of Customs at Karachi, confirming the arrival (and sometimes non-arrival) of named vessels.

Other papers in the file include:

Extent and format
1 file (498 folios)
Arrangement

The file’s contents are arranged in approximate chronological order, from the earliest item at the front to the latest at the end. The file notes at the end of the file (ff 463-499) mirror the chronological arrangement.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 500; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. An additional foliation sequence is present in parallel between ff 3-331 and between ff 427-462; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled, and are located in the same position as the main sequence. An additional mixed foliation/pagination sequence is also present in parallel between ff 463-492; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
Type
Archival file

Archive information for this record

Access & Reference

Original held at
British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers
Access conditions

Unrestricted

Archive reference
IOR/R/15/2/1376
Former external reference(s)
English Office: File 12/7 II

History of this record

Date(s)
23 Feb 1924-4 Nov 1944 (CE, Gregorian)
Context of creation

The high rates of customs duty in India meant that many goods were exported out of Indian ports, only to be smuggled back into the country. A system of landing certificates was used to ensure that goods exported from Indian ports, including Karachi, to the ports of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the Arabian littoral, were landed at the ports specified, and not smuggled back into India.

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‘File 12/7 II Arrival of country craft from India’, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/1376, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100000000282.0x00006f> [accessed 23 July 2019]

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