'NOTES ON THE ISLANDS OF BAHRAIN AND ANTIQUITIES BY CAPTAIN E. L. DURAND, 1 ASSISTANT RESIDENT, PERSIAN GULF.'

IOR/L/PS/18/B95

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The record is made up of 1 file (14 folios). It was created in Aug 1879. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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Letter No. 164 from Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Charles Ross, Her British Majesty's Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , to Alfred Comyn Lyall, Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department, 1 May 1879, enclosing notes on the islands of Bahrain and Antiquities, written by Edward Law Durand, and commenting that some of the antiquities described had not been documented before and were of interest to the British Museum who were funding further research and excavation.

The notes are broken down into the following headings:

Bahrain

  • Descriptive: describing the physical geography of the islands and their surrounding waters, the longitude and latitude and navigable access by sea;
  • Trade: describing the pearl and date trades, and ways in which trade and harbour access might be improved;
  • Interior of the Islands: describing geographical features inland;
  • Water: describing the locations of fresh springs across the island and also the availability of salt;
  • Trees and Plants; describing the flora and fauna of the islands;
  • Animals: tame animals including horses, donkeys, camels and cows
  • Wild animals: including gazelle, mongoose and hares.

Antiquities

  • Antiquarian: giving an account of the earliest known history of the islands, including their rulership by the Phoenicians, Babylonians, Persians, Arabs and Portuguese, before describing the antiquities to be found on the islands.

The notes describe the antiquities visited by Captain Durand during trips to Bahrain, including all the mosques on the islands; an old stone water well found in a date grove near Bilad-i-Kadim [Bilad al Qadeem]; a number of mounds at Ali [Aali] which were determined to be temples or tombs, which Durand speculates may have been the great Phoenician cemetery of Gerrha and which he spent several days exploring and excavating.

The notes include illustrations (folios 29, 30, 33 and 35) to accompany the report, which were lithographed from originals supplied by the Foreign Department of the Government of India.

The notes also included two maps which have since been removed and are kept in the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Maps Collection (IOR/W/L/PS/18/B95).

Extent and format
1 file (14 folios)
Physical characteristics

Foliation: The foliation for this description commences at folio 25, and terminates at folio 38, since it is part of a larger physical volume; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. An additional foliation sequence is also present in the top right hand corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. These numbers are written in pencil, but are not circled.

Written in
English in Latin script
Type
Archival file

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Original held at
British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers
Access conditions

Unrestricted

Archive reference
IOR/L/PS/18/B95

History of this record

Date(s)
Aug 1879 (CE, Gregorian)

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IOR/W/L/PS/18/B95

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'NOTES ON THE ISLANDS OF BAHRAIN AND ANTIQUITIES BY CAPTAIN E. L. DURAND, 1 ASSISTANT RESIDENT, PERSIAN GULF.', British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/18/B95, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100000000833.0x00011e> [accessed 25 August 2019]

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