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'Historical Summary of Events in Territories of the Ottoman Empire, Persia and Arabia affecting the British Position in the Persian Gulf, 1907-1928' [‎8r] (22/188)

The record is made up of 1 volume (90 folios). It was created in 1928. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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13
the fact may be noted that the chief periods of Wahabi external aggression have
coincided with the rule of great Emirs ambitious of political power and all the
secular rewards of conquest.
In 1891 Abdur Rahman-bin-Saud, Emir of Nejd, was overthrown in battle by
Mohammed-bin-Rashid, Emir of Jebel Shammar, one of the greatest of Arabian
conquerors, who added the Wahabi territory to his already wide domains. The
dispossessed Emir and his family eventually found refuge with the Sheikh of
Koweit.
Mohammed-bin-Rashid, conqueror of Nejd, died in 1897. Three years later,
Riyadh, the capital of Nejd, was recaptured by a sudden Wahabi attack. This bold
stroke was the work of Abdul Aziz-bin-Saud, a youth of 20, son of the fugitive
Emir at Koweit. Henceforward it will be convenient to speak of the son as
Ibn Saud and the father as Abdur Rahman, though he did not resign the Emirship
till about 1910. This young Ibn Saud w T as the future Sultan of Nejd and King of
Hejaz, who at present rules the greater part of Arabia.
Between 1902 and 1908 Ibn Saud recovered nearly all the territory included in
the Nejd of twenty years earlier. During these six years of intermittent hostilities,
including Turkish intervention against the Wahabi State, Ibn Saud and his father
felt the need of obtaining foreign support. In 1902 Abdur Rahman approached
the British Resident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. with the request that he might be regarded
"as one having relations with the British Government," and stated that he had
already rejected Russian overtures because he wished his relations to be with Great
Britain. The Resident did not reply to the letter; his action was approved by the
Government of India, and he was instructed not to encourage the Wahabi Emir.
Perhaps in consequence of this rebuff the next Russian advances were more
favourably received by the Emir. A meeting between his son Ibn Saud and the
Russian consul-general at Bushire took place at Koweit in March 1903. It is
understood that at their interview Russian support in arms and money was offered.
This particular manifestation of Russian policy in the Gulf would seem to have been
caused by an appeal by Ibn Rashid to the Porte in 1902 for aid to quell Ibn Sand's
"revolt." At the same time, he had represented that Great Britain intended to
establish close relations with the Wahabi State.
In January 1904 Ibn Rashid renewed his request for help, and now definitely
offered to place himself under Turkish sovereignty and orders. Thus came about
the Turkish occupation of Qasim, a region between Jebel Shammar and Nejd, and
claimed by both. A Turkish expedition was sent from Mesopotamia in May 1904;
it reached Qasim in July. By the beginning of October it had been almost entirely
destroyed by the Wahabis and their allies.
When His Majesty's Government found that the Turks were about to give Ibn
Rashid military aid they recognised that, being deeply interested in the maintenance
of the status quo at Koweit, they could not remain indifferent. Sheikh Mubarak, of
that place, was in alliance with the Emir of Nejd ; Turkish help to Ibn Rashid might
lead to the sheikh supporting his ally, and thus jeopardising the status quo.
Discussion between the British and Indian Governments showed that the latter feared
the absorption of Nejd by Turkey more than a Wahabi domination of Central Arabia.
Remonstrances were therefore made at Constantinople, but all without effect, and
the Turkish force began its march. Meanwhile the Emir of Nejd, alarmed at the
prospect of Turkish intervention, had again applied to the Resident in the Persian
Gulf for British protection. Again, however, no answer was vouchsafed him.
Early in 1904 the question of sending a British officer to the capital of Nejd was
mooted by the Government of India. But His Majesty's Government, having
apprehensions, decided that without their sanction no steps should be taken to enter
into relations with Nejd or to send an agent there.
After defeating the Turkish expedition, the Wahabi Emir seems to have become
disturbed at his ow T n success. It is reported that about the middle of October 1904
he wrote to the Vali of Basra, endeavoured to explain away the attack on an Ottoman
force, and requested that his submission should be accepted. His explanations w T ere
well received at Constantinople, but preparations were continued in Mesopotamia
for sending another expedition to Central Arabia.
This force marched out of Nejef at the end of January 1905; it was known by
this time, however, that its destination was Qasim and its mission pacific. It was
met at the Turkish frontier by the Wahabi Emir and the Sheikh of Koweit. In the
discussions that followed between them and the Turkish Vali an arrangement was
reached in the middle of February by which the Emir w T as to be appointed Kai'makam

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Content

The volume is entitled Summary of Events in Territories of the Ottoman Empire, Persia and Arabia affecting the British Position in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , 1907-1928 (printed by the Committee of Imperial Defence, October 1928).

Includes sections on The Ottoman Empire, Persia, Arabia (Nejd [Najd]), Mohammerah [Khorramshahr], Muscat, and Bahrein [Bahrain].

Extent and format
1 volume (90 folios)
Arrangement

There is a table of contents at the front of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at 1 on the front cover and terminates at 90 on the back cover. These numbers are written in pencil, are enclosed in a circle, and appear in the top right hand corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. page of each folio. Foliation anomalies: ff. 1, 1A; ff. 86, 86A. Two folios, f. 3 and f. 4 have been reattached in the wrong order, so that f. 4 precedes f. 3. The following map folios need to be folded out to be examined: f. 87, f. 88.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'Historical Summary of Events in Territories of the Ottoman Empire, Persia and Arabia affecting the British Position in the Persian Gulf, 1907-1928' [‎8r] (22/188), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/730, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100022744604.0x000017> [accessed 16 November 2019]

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