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'Historical Summary of Events in Territories of the Ottoman Empire, Persia and Arabia affecting the British Position in the Persian Gulf, 1907-1928' [‎8v] (23/188)

The record is made up of 1 volume (90 folios). It was created in 1928. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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14
oi Governor of -Nejd under Turkey, Ibn Rashid restrained from interference in Nejd,
and iurkish officials and military garrisons established throughout Qasim. The
paciiic occupation of Qasim so arranged was duly effected and the Sultan's name
used m public prayers.
Notwithstanding the presence of Turkish garrisons in Qasim, hostilities were
resumed between Nejd and Jebel Shammar at the end of 1905. In April 1906 Ibn
bauu surprised and routed the Shammar force and killed Ibn Rashid. In the elation
oi^ this success the Wahabi Emir proclaimed himself "Ruler of Sharq," a term by
v.mch he is supposed to have designated the whole of Eastern Arabia. Peace was
declared between Jebel Shammar and Nejd in July 1906.
1 ^ the end of 1906 the Turkish garrisons in Qasim, always in difficulties with
tne people and with ibn Sand, were withdrawn to Ilejaz, and the occupation ended
with a great loss of Ottoman prestige in Arabia, the increase of Ibn Saud's, and the
inclusion of Qasim in the territory of Nejd.
During j uOO Abdur Rahman and his son made repeated, but unsuccessful, efforts
through the Sheikh of Koweit and others to open negotiations for the support of the
British Government. In one of these approaches an agent of Ibn Saud's informed
the British Political Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. at Bahrein that the Wahabi leader intended the capture
of Hasa, on the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (a province of Nejd, held by the Turks since 1875),
but that before attempting it he wished to be assured of British protection by sea.
m return, he would bind himself by agreements to the British Government similar
to those of i racial Oman. In May 1907 His Majesty's Government directed that
Ibn baud s agent should be informed that, as the proposal involved matters which
could not possibly be entertained, no reply should be expected.
Ibn Sand now turned his attention to improving and exploiting the political
and military resources available in Nejd. The chief of these was Wahabism and
the innate tendency of the population to react to the teachings of the creed. He
saw that Wahabism could be fanned into activity; could be organised—as had never
so tar been done—and be made submissive to his personal and absolute control.
In this way he would create an invaluable force for attaining his political and
military ambitions, ihese schemes, however, required time for their execution; and
between 1908 and 1914 Ibn Saud was chiefly occupied with internal organisation of
the kind indicated.
In 1910 he called into existence the society known as the Akhwan (or
Brotherhood). It professed the strictest interpretations of the Wahabi creed;
was organised and armed as a military force that could be mobilised at the shortest
notice; and was pledged to absolute obedience to Ibn Saud as head of the
Brotherhood. This revival of Wahabism in its extremist form flourished and spread
amazingly. In the training centre established at Riyadh some 300 selected members
of the Brotherhood were always under instruction as the preachers and agents of
Akhwanism, to be sent thence when trained wherever their master required. At
Riyadh, too, was an organisation by which the order to mobilise could be conveyed
to every part of Nejd territory within 48 hours.
This period of preparation by Ibn Saud witnessed also the chief activities of
His Majesty's Government in consolidating and safeguarding the British position
in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. by the negotiation of conventions with Turkey and Germany.
The Anglo-Turkish Convention, initialled in May 1913, recognised the Sheikhdom of
Koweit as an Ottoman kaza, but defined and confirmed its autonomous status and
excluded Turkish interference. The same convention also dealt with matters
touching the interests of Ibn Saud. It recognised Hasa—the province on the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. that had been in Turkish occupation since 1871—as an Ottoman
sanjak of Nejd, and thus implied recognition of Ottoman sovereignty oyer Nejd
itself.
At the end of 1913 Ibn Saud felt himself strong enough to attempt the recovery
of Hasa—the project for which he had sought British support seven years earlier.
By May 1914, he had expelled the Turkish garrison, regained the province, and with
it a coast line on the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. of some 250 miles between Koweit and the
Peninsula of El-Katr. He had thus brought himself into direct contact with British
interests and was no longer a ruler whom His Majesty's Government could ignore.
At this time the Turkish Government were in no position to take active
measures against Ibn Saud's aggression. As a face-saving alternative thev
condoned his offence and offered to appoint him Vali of Nejd; and this nominal
position he accepted, regarding the title as meaningless except as carrying with it a
more easy settlement of the issue than he had ever hoped to obtain.
The World War was now in sight and Ibn Saud had to decide how it would
affect him, and what course he should pursue for his own advantage.

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Content

The volume is entitled Summary of Events in Territories of the Ottoman Empire, Persia and Arabia affecting the British Position in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , 1907-1928 (printed by the Committee of Imperial Defence, October 1928).

Includes sections on The Ottoman Empire, Persia, Arabia (Nejd [Najd]), Mohammerah [Khorramshahr], Muscat, and Bahrein [Bahrain].

Extent and format
1 volume (90 folios)
Arrangement

There is a table of contents at the front of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at 1 on the front cover and terminates at 90 on the back cover. These numbers are written in pencil, are enclosed in a circle, and appear in the top right hand corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. page of each folio. Foliation anomalies: ff. 1, 1A; ff. 86, 86A. Two folios, f. 3 and f. 4 have been reattached in the wrong order, so that f. 4 precedes f. 3. The following map folios need to be folded out to be examined: f. 87, f. 88.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'Historical Summary of Events in Territories of the Ottoman Empire, Persia and Arabia affecting the British Position in the Persian Gulf, 1907-1928' [‎8v] (23/188), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/730, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100022744604.0x000018> [accessed 15 December 2019]

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