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'Memorandum on the Turkish claim to sovereignty over the eastern shores of the Red Sea and the whole of Arabia; and on the Egyptian claim to the whole of the western shore of the same sea, including the African coast from Suez to Cape Guardafui.' [‎10v] (20/70)

The record is made up of 35 folios. It was created in 10 Mar 1874. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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16
Zeyla has more than once been occupied by the
Turks, and Captain Burton gives the following
account of the original occupation of the town by
them about the year 1500:—
"When the Turks conquered Yemen (about Burton, page 68=
1500) the lawless janissaries 'who lived upon the
very bowels of commerce' drove the peaceable
Arab merchants to the opposite shore. The trade
of India, flying from the same enemy, took refuge
in Adel, amongst its partners (Adel, Arabia, and
India being then, according to Bruce, partners in
one trade, who eventually exported their produce to
Europe, Asia, and Africa, at that time the whole
known world).
" The Turks of Arabia, though they were blind to
the cause, were sensible of the great influx of wealth
into the opposite kingdom. They took possession,
therefore, of Zeyla, which they made a den of
thieves ; established there what they called a Custom
house ; and by means of that port, and galleys
cruizing in the narrow Straits of Babelmandeb, they
laid the Indian trade to Adel under heavy contri
bution, that might indemnify them for the great
desertion their violence and injustice had occasioned
in Arabia."
Captain Burton then alludes to the occupation of
other parts of the coasts of the Red Sea by the
Turks. He says :—
" The Turks, under a show of protecting Ibid., page €9, note,
commerce, established three ports in three different
parts ; but they soon made it appear that the end
proposed was only to ascertain who were the subjects
from whom they could levy the most enormous
extortions. Jeddah, Zebid, and Mocha, the places
of consequence nearest to Abyssinia on the Indian
coast j Suakin, a seaport town on the very barrier
of Abyssinia, in the immediate way of the caravans
to Cairo, on the African side, were each under the
command of a Turkish Pasha, and garrisoned by
Turkish troops sent thither from* Constantinople by
the Emperors Selim and Sulayman. 5 '
At the time when Captain Burton visited Zeyla—
in 1854—Hajj Sharmarkaj was Governor of the
place, and he gave Captain Burton a Table showing Ibid., page is.
that he was the sixteenth in descent from the
founder of the Gerhajis and Awul tribes.
Sharmarkay succeeded, about the year 1841, as Ibid., page 19.

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Content

Memorandum prepared by Edward Hertlset, Foreign Office Librarian, on 5 March 1874 (printed by the Foreign Office 10 March 1874). The document gives a historical overview (from 1517 to 1874) of claims on the Red Sea coast, with particular focus on those of the Ottoman Turks and the Egyptians. It discusses attempts by the French, Italians and Americans to gain a foothold in the region. It ends with a summary of things as they stand, with political and commercial considerations, as well as those of the slave trade.

Hertslet quotes extensively from his sources, notes on which appear in the left-hand margin.

Extent and format
35 folios
Arrangement

At the beginning (folios 1-2) there is a table of reference to facts and dates, with reference to the printed page number.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the sequence commences at the first folio and terminates at the last folio; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. A second foliation sequence is also present in parallel between ff 1-34; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled, and are located in the bottom right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: The booklet also contains an original typed pagination sequence.

Written in
English and French in Latin script
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'Memorandum on the Turkish claim to sovereignty over the eastern shores of the Red Sea and the whole of Arabia; and on the Egyptian claim to the whole of the western shore of the same sea, including the African coast from Suez to Cape Guardafui.' [‎10v] (20/70), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/18/B8, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023282030.0x000015> [accessed 17 February 2020]

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