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'File 9/1 Institution of Reforms & Sunni opposition intrigues' [‎28r] (70/504)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (241 folios). It was created in 10 Apr 1922-19 Oct 1930. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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him recently and bogged hlin to give hi a approval* Though
ho was not asked to contribute in anyway to the cost of
the undertaking, and was even offered a royalty on the
water, he resolutely refused to agree, and would assign
no reason for hi a refusal which is depriving the in
habitants of much needed benefits* As an example of hi©
i
credulity and ignorance Major Daly nentions the followimt'i
The roads near Mianaciah are being repaired and Hajor
Daly procured some old rails discarded by the Army for
use for mall bridges* The Sheikh refused to allow
these to be used on the ground they were Government pro
perty, and (kJVernment would claim the ground they were inl |
6* if such is his attitude to schemes of purely
material progress urged on him by his own family and
subjects| it can be supposed that there is no hope j
whatsoever that the gheildt will ever agree, save under }
strong compulsion, to the introduction of administrative ||
changes which he would regard not as reform but as re
action, and which are desired only by the Shi aha, and
by the British Go Vermont * indeed euch is his intract-
I
ability that it is extremely doubtful whether even f
strong moral compulsion would induce him to agree*
A year ago, a hint of aovernment's severe displeasure
would probably have moved him* t do not think it is
likely to do so now* And if that failed, it would have
to bo followed up by a show of material force, or by a
tightening of moral pressure - ending ultimately (for
I can see no alternative) in the threat of deposition
If he were to continue in an attitude of passive
resistance* In all human probability such a threat
would bring the Sheikh, and his wife, to their senses?
but if it did not Government would have no choice but
to carry out its threat, and that would only be done by
a resort to force, however embarassing the circumstances*
Tn

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Content

The first part of the volume (folios 2 to 146) covers the period 1922 to 1927, and concerns proposals for reforms in the Sheikhdom of Bahrain, and their subsequent implementation and impact on the kingdom. This part of the volume contains letters exchanged between the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. in Bahrain (Major Clive Daly until September 1926, thereafter Major Cyril Barrett) and the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. (Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Trevor or the Acting Resident Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Knox until April 1924, thereafter Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Prideaux), and the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. and the Foreign Secretary of the Government of India. British officials discussed proposals for economic and political reforms in Bahrain, with particular attention paid to tax changes intended to redress the imbalance between what Bahrain's Sunnis and Shias were obliged to pay. Also discussed were the financial reorganisation of the customs house and regulation of the pearl diving industry, reform of the Bahrain judicial system, land registration and revenues, and the institution of a Levy Corps force. British officials also discussed the relationships between themselves and between members of the al Khalifa ruling family, in particular Isa bin Ali Al Khalifa and his son Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa. The abdication or removal of Isa, and the installation of Hamad, are discussed at length.

The last part of the volume (folio 147 onwards) spans the period 1929-1930, and is chiefly comprised of correspondence between the Bahrain Agent (Colonel Geoffrey Prior), Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. (Barrett to November 1929, thereafter Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Biscoe) and officials from the Government of India. This part of the volume concerns fears on the part of the Government of India that Britain is too heavily involved in Bahrain, and asks questions of whether the number of British officials in Bahrain can be reduced. Included are two lengthy reports by Prior and Barrett in June and August 1929 respectively (folios 147-162, 165-185) outlining Britain's historic intervention in Bahrain, and stressing the importance of its continued presence.

Extent and format
1 volume (241 folios)
Arrangement

The volume's contents have been arranged in approximate chronological order, starting with the earliest items at the front and finishing with the latest items at the end.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The foliation sequence begins on the front cover and finishes on the back cover, using circled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. A second foliation sequence is also present between ff 2-118; these numbers are written in blue crayon, circled and can be found in the same position as the main sequence. The following foliation anomalies occur: 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E and 1F; 137A and 137B.

The following folios are fold-outs: 17-18, 51-52, 64-65, 86, 106-107, 221 and 227.

The volume is tightly bound to the extent that the text on some items disappears into the gutter, making it difficult to read.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'File 9/1 Institution of Reforms & Sunni opposition intrigues' [‎28r] (70/504), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/127, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023321442.0x000047> [accessed 22 January 2020]

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