'File 9/5 Bahrain Reforms. Reforms in Pearling and Boat Registration' [7r] (28/434)
The record is made up of 1 volume (207 folios). It was created in 4 Aug 1895-12 Feb 1930. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
pearl Industrj', Bahrain, Contd,
with drops of rain falling into the sea. ihe
flakhuda watohea over the opening of the shells,
collects any pearla and shuts them up in the sea
chest, it is difficult to steal pearls
because they wear practically no clothes and they
hatre nowhere to hide them.
5. MSDICAL. Diving is an unhealthy profession end Tte*
aiiii=£S» divers aa a whole are not long lived.
The boats are very over-crowded and sometimes they
remain out at sea for two months at a time. rhe
uivers live on a ration of datea, rice and fish.
Most divers suffer from ear trouble.
Rupture of the ear-drum is almost universal, in
fact men are not considered proficient until this
i^uphyeema of th© lungs is common and is
often followed by Bronchitis, acute and chronic.
Very often diving causes delation of the heart
with valvular desoase.
Scurvy is often noticed during and after
the season but Hakhudas appear to know the preventive
value of lime juice and no boat leaves for the banks
About this item
The volume contains correspondence and reports relating to proposed reforms of the pearling industry in Bahrain. The majority of the correspondence takes place between the Bahrain Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. (Clive Day, who was the principle architect of the pearling industry reforms, and served from 1921 to 1926, superseded by Cyril Barrett), the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. or his secretary, and the advisor to the Bahrain Government, Charles Belgrave.
The reforms proposed, and which are discussed at length throughout the volume include:
- Economic reforms, with particular attention given to shares of the profits paid to divers, and the allowances paid to divers, and interest on their debts, through the Salifeh court. This aspect of the reforms was designed to reduce the state of debt slavery that many divers existed in towards their boat masters ( nakhudas The (usually Arab) captain or master of a local boat. );
- The introduction of accounts books for all pearl divers;
- Boat registration and pearl fishing licenses;
- The introduction of a hospital boat intended to patrol the pearling banks, with medical staff on board who are capable of providing medical attention to pearl divers as required;
- The advantages and disadvantages of permitting pearl merchants to use motor launches to reach the pearling boats, the use of which would place some merchants at an advantage over those travelling under sail power.
Items of note in the file include:
- A report entitled 'The Pearl Industry. Bahrain', written by Charles Belgrave, undated but probably 1928 (folios 3-23);
- Letters from the Director of the Bahrain Customs House to the Political Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. (1924), giving figures for the numbers of boats registered and pearling licenses issued, and the income generated (folios 51, 71, 84);
- A original petition in Arabic, signed by numerous nakhudas The (usually Arab) captain or master of a local boat. , complaining of the reforms, dated 26 September 1925 (folio 123, English translation on folios 124-26);
- A letter written by Barrett to Horner (the Secretary to the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. ), dated 1 January 1927, writing of disturbances in Manama, caused by a crowd of two-hundred pearl divers who are unhappy with reductions in their allowances (folios 149-52);
- Extent and format
- 1 volume (207 folios)
The items in the volume have been arranged in approximate chronological order, from the earliest items at the front of the volume, to the latest at the end.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: The volume is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using pencil numbers in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . An earlier, incomplete foliation sequence, using blue pencil circled numbers in the top right corner of rectos, runs from folios 24 to 66. The following foliation anomalies occur: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 23a, 79a, 130a, 157a.
The following folios are fold-outs: 37, 42, 46-50, 52, 53, 60, 62, 70-73, 75-79, 79a, 84-86, 90, 92, 94, 96, 106, 111, 121-26, 149-54, 157, 157a, 161, 171, 177, 179, 183, 184, 187, 193.
Due to the binding of the volume, the text on some items runs very close to the gutter, making text more difficult to read.
- Written in
- English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script View the complete information for this record
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- 'File 9/5 Bahrain Reforms. Reforms in Pearling and Boat Registration'
- 2r:23v, 23ar
- Belgrave, Sir Charles Dalrymple
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