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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎4r] (24/224)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (98 folios). It was created in 30 Dec 1921-27 Jul 1924. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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the very large foreign elemetit is rapidly becoming more enlightened, the oppres
sion of the ruling family is greater than would be tolerated among tribal Arabs,
who are in a position to take the law into their own hands when unusually dis
satisfied.
C. K. DALY, Major, I.A.,
Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Bahrain,
Serial No. 3.
No. 24-S., dated Bushire, the 6th (received the 17th) January 1922.
From—The Hon'ble Lieutenant-Colonel A. P. Trevor, C.S.I., C.I.E., Political
Resident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
Subject :— Tyranny of the Shaikh of Bahrain and hisjamily over Bahrain subjects.
In my letter No. 496-S., dated 30th December regarding the tyranny of the
Shaikh of Bahrain over his subjects, I stated that I had requested the Political
Agent to forward to me notes of a few of the more glaring cases of oppression, and
I now have the honour to submit for the information of the Government of India,
a copy of his memorandum giving particulars of certain cases of oppression of
various sorts.
Case No. 6 was reported to the Government of India in my letter No. 272 -S.,
dated 21st September 1920. Case No. 16 was the one alluded to in my letter
above-mentioned as having been reported to me at the interview on 21st Decem
ber ; in describing the case I inadvertently stated that Shaikh Khalid was the
offender instead of Shaikh Hamud bin Subah. I regret that I should have made
this mistake, but the main facts are correct, and the case is a very glaring one.
It will be noticed that Shaikh Abdulla is responsible for many of the acts of
oppression. Just before and during the early part of the war Shaikh Abdulla
seemed to be the most intelligent and progressive of the Shaikh's sons ; when I was
at Bahrain he was helpful in the matter of the landing arrangements, and when
Colonel (then Captain) Keyes was Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at the beginning of the war he
was very useful and was given a C.I.E. All this, however, seems to have been done
with a view to supplant his elder brother Shaikh Hamad as heir-apparent, and
towards the end of the war and for some time after Shaikh Abdulla became virtual
ruler of Bahrain.
When the state of affairs was first brought to my notice I thought that perhaps
matters would be improved by reinstating Shaikh Hamad in his proper position,
and this was done last hot weather, but as reported in my above mentioned letter
it has not had the desired effect. At the same time the question of reinstating
Shaikh Hamad came up there was considerable agitation against Shaikh Abdulla
and the latter thought it advisable to pretend to withdraw from affairs in case
matters should come to a head ; he therefore pretended to acquiesce in Sheikh
Hamad's reinstatement but has never ceased to intrigue against him. In this he
is ably assisted by his mother who is a very masterful lady and who completely
dopminates Shaikh Easa. v
The Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. has frequently spoken to Shaikh Easa about these matters
but he is quite in his dotage and completely under the thumb of his wife, so that
nothing can be done in this way. He has also had several talks with Shaikh Abdulla
but the latter, while professing everything declines to mend his ways. Another
point is that under present conditions if Shaikh Easa were to die, Shaikh Abdulla
would certainly not allow Hamad to succeed quietly, without making a fight for it.
In the circumstances I think the only way to improve matters would be for
Government to inform the Shaikh that owing to the number of complaints against

About this item

Content

The volume contains printed copies of Government of India confidential correspondence, relating to the Bahrain reforms. The majority of the letters contained in volume are printed copies of correspondence originally sent to the Government of India either by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Trevor or Acting Resident Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Knox), or the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain (Major Clive Daly). Much of the correspondence featured in the volume can be found in the original (or as office copies) in a number of files in the two Bahrain Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. subsubseries ‘File 9 Bahrain Reforms’ (IOR/R/15/2/127-138) and ‘File 8 Miscellaneous’ (IOR/R/15/2/121-126), and the Bushire Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. subsubseries ‘File 19 Bahrain’ (IOR/R/15/1/314-77).

The printed correspondence contained in the volume covers a range of subjects:

  • Events leading up to the programme of reforms carried out in Bahrain: allegations of the oppression of Bahraini subjects by members of the Āl Khalīfah family, violence, the deteriorating economic situation;
  • The reforms proposed and implemented by British officials: replacement of Shaikh ‘Īsá by Shaikh Ḥamad as defacto ruler, economic reforms, judicial reforms, pearl diving industry reforms, customs house reforms;
  • Specific incidents of violence involving Sunnis and Shias, or Najdis and Persians.

Some of the papers in the volume are accompanied by duplicate copies:

  • Folios 61-64 are duplicates of folios 57-60;
  • Folios 68-69 are duplicates of folios 66-67;
  • Folios 81-84 are duplicates of folios 77-80.
Extent and format
1 volume (98 folios)
Arrangement

The volume's contents are arranged in approximate chronological order, starting with the earliest items at the front and finishing with the latest items at the end.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The volume is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using uncircled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . Most of the items in the volume are printed items that have their own internal pagination systems, using printed numbers in the top-right corners of recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages and the top-left corners of verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. pages, or centred at the top of both verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. and recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages. The following foliation anomalies occur: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f.

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English in Latin script
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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎4r] (24/224), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/131, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023403812.0x000019> [accessed 25 February 2020]

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