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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎7v] (31/224)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (98 folios). It was created in 30 Dec 1921-27 Jul 1924. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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14
Serial No. 10.
No. 99-S., dated Bushire, tlie 27tli January (received the 3rd February) 1922.
jr rom —The Hon'ble Lieutenant-Colonel A. P. Trevor , C.S .I., C .I.E., Political
Resident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
Subject.— Tyranny of Shaik of Bahrain and family over Bahrain subjects.
In continuation of the correspondence"-ending with my letter No. 76-S., dated
tlie 19th January. I have the honour to forward herewith a copy of a memorandum
from the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Bahrain, giving cover to a petition made to him by 04
representative Bahrainis. I have retained the original petition and only forward
ed the translation.
The matters referred to in Bahrain letters 12-C. and 13-C. were dealt with
in my letter above-mentioned.
I think there can be little doubt that Shaik Abdullajs at the bottom of these
affairs, and that best way to quiet matters would be to insist on Shaik Isa agreeing
to deport him as was done in the case of Sh?,.ik Ali bin Ahmed in 1905, and hope
that Government will be pleased to give this proposal their serious consideration.
Enclosure No. 1 to Serial No. 10.
Memo. No. 22-C., dated Bahrain, the 24th January 1922.
From— Major C. K. Daly, I. A., Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Bahrain,
To—The Hon'ble the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Bushire.
I beg to forward herewith for your information a petition which was sent to
me to-day. As I was not in a position to give them a reply, I stated that I would
forward it to you. As I deemed it better that it should not be translated in my
office for fear of possible persecution of the signatories should their names be dis
closed, I have made a translation which I attach.
Since the submission of my Nos. 12-C. and 13-C., the Shaiks have ceased
persecuting Haji Ali, but last night there was an attack by four armed men on a
policeman just behind the Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. between here and the American Mission. The
policeman was shot through the chest, but was taken to the Mission Hospital and
the wound has not proved fatal. This morning a Bahraini from the village of Jidhafs
reported that he had seen four armed men in Jidtafj just after dark. They had
hidden their faces with their " Chafiehs " and could not be recognised and when he
spoke to them they told him to mind his own business. It is probable that they
were the men concerned in the affair which took place a few hours later. It is signi
ficant that Jidhafs is under the direct rule of Shaik Abdulla. The policeman
says he fired three rounds and one of his assailants fell but rose again and they all
ran away. Shaik Salman discussed the matter to-day m the Municipal Council
and expressed the opinion that it was a deliberately " put up " affair. The meeting
agreed, and it was obvious from remarks made that everyone was of opinion that
Abdulla is the cause of the mischief. Means of preventing recurrences were dis
cussed, but no definite decision come to, as it is evident that however much the
police force be increased, it will always be possible for such premeditated attacks
to be made on dark nights.
It would seem that Shaik Abdulla has chosen to follow in the footsteps of his
bin Ahmad, and to stop at nothing. There is now no room for doubt
that there will be no peace here until he has been sinjilarly removed from the scene
oi nis activities.
Enclosure No. 2 to Serial No. 10.
Translation of a petition from the Bahrainis to the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , dated 21st Jamad,"
al-Awwal.
T ^f^^ cow^lzinents, Soinetune^ ago we approached the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency.
nd you ; both verbally and m writing we informed you of our state. We also sent

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Content

The volume contains printed copies of Government of India confidential correspondence, relating to the Bahrain reforms. The majority of the letters contained in volume are printed copies of correspondence originally sent to the Government of India either by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Trevor or Acting Resident Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Knox), or the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain (Major Clive Daly). Much of the correspondence featured in the volume can be found in the original (or as office copies) in a number of files in the two Bahrain Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. subsubseries ‘File 9 Bahrain Reforms’ (IOR/R/15/2/127-138) and ‘File 8 Miscellaneous’ (IOR/R/15/2/121-126), and the Bushire Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. subsubseries ‘File 19 Bahrain’ (IOR/R/15/1/314-77).

The printed correspondence contained in the volume covers a range of subjects:

  • Events leading up to the programme of reforms carried out in Bahrain: allegations of the oppression of Bahraini subjects by members of the Āl Khalīfah family, violence, the deteriorating economic situation;
  • The reforms proposed and implemented by British officials: replacement of Shaikh ‘Īsá by Shaikh Ḥamad as defacto ruler, economic reforms, judicial reforms, pearl diving industry reforms, customs house reforms;
  • Specific incidents of violence involving Sunnis and Shias, or Najdis and Persians.

Some of the papers in the volume are accompanied by duplicate copies:

  • Folios 61-64 are duplicates of folios 57-60;
  • Folios 68-69 are duplicates of folios 66-67;
  • Folios 81-84 are duplicates of folios 77-80.
Extent and format
1 volume (98 folios)
Arrangement

The volume's contents are arranged in approximate chronological order, starting with the earliest items at the front and finishing with the latest items at the end.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The volume is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using uncircled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . Most of the items in the volume are printed items that have their own internal pagination systems, using printed numbers in the top-right corners of recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages and the top-left corners of verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. pages, or centred at the top of both verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. and recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages. The following foliation anomalies occur: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f.

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English in Latin script
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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎7v] (31/224), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/131, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023403812.0x000020> [accessed 6 December 2019]

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