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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎11r] (38/224)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (98 folios). It was created in 30 Dec 1921-27 Jul 1924. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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21
agreed to this, and issued orders for the opening of a Government office with two
regular clerks for dealing with public business, and for the establishment of a regular
court for the disposal of cases among their subjects, in which a rough record of pro
ceedings will be kept. These improvements, together with some others are being
strongly demanded by public opinion.
The matter of taxation is temporarily postponed, but is bound to arise again
in the course of the next few weeks. I request that I may be instructed as to the
attitude I should adopt in the matter.
Serial No. 26.
No. 466-S., dated Bushire the 25th June (received the 5th July) 1922.
From—The Hon'ble Lieutenant Colonel A. P. Trevor, C.S.I., C.I.E., Political
Resident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
Bahrain Reforms.
With reference to the correspondence ending with your telegram No. 851-S.,
dated the 24th June, on the subject of the proposed reforms at Bahrain I have
the honour to report that matters remain in statu quo and it now seems unlikely
that the Shaikhs will seriously attempt any reform unless driven to it by rebellion
on the part of the Bahrainis.
2. The reasons for this are as follows : —
The Shaikhs expressed their original desire for reform shortly before
Ramzan and Ramzan had started when Foreign and Political
Department telegram No. 549-S., dated the 2nd May was received.
In Ramzan, especially if the fast occurs during the hot weather,
no one does much in Bahrain and needless to say nothing was
attempted during the month. By the end of Ramzan the Shaikhs'
desire for reforms had fizzled out to a great extent. Another
reason is that a few months before the Dowasir, a powerful tribe of
Sunni Arabs who reside at Budaiya and the neighbourhood on the
north-west corner of the main island and fit out a lot of boats for
the pearl fisheries, sent a deputation to the Sultan of Nejd. The
latter received the deputation well and is said to have promised
them his support. This has frightened the Shaikhs as they have
a great dread of Bin Sa'ud and the Akhwan, and now that they
think the Dowasir will have Bin Sa'ud behind them in resisting
reforms which touch their pockets, it is very unlikely that any
reforms will be attempted, unless, as I have remarked above, they
ire forced on the Shaikhs by pressure of events.
Serial No. 29.
No. 529-S., dated Bushire, the 16th (received the 25th) July 1922.
From—The Hon'ble Lieutenant-Colonel A.
Resident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
P. Trevor, C.S.I. C.I.E., Political
Reforms in Bahrain.
With reference to the telegram No. 915-S., dated the 10th July 1922, on the
subject of the proposed reforms in Bahrain, I have the honour to submit for the
information of the Government of India a copy of a letter from the Political
Agent, Bahrain on the subject.
2. In this letter Major Daly gives all available information about the visit
of the Shaikh of the Dowasir to Bin Sa'ud except its date and I am making further
enquiries about this. When Bin Sa'ud was at Hasa the Shaikh of Qatar went
to see him and some of the Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. Shaikhs sent presents. In the correspond
ence regarding the destruction of a tower at Ajman m 1921 : I reported that the
Shaikh of that place had sent a deputation. Bin Sa'ud in fact is the most imposing
personality among the Arabs of these parts and all the petty Shaikhs and tribes of
the coast like to keep in with him as far as possible. Most of the Shaikhs on the
Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. fear the Akhwan and abhor their tenets but deem it advisable to

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Content

The volume contains printed copies of Government of India confidential correspondence, relating to the Bahrain reforms. The majority of the letters contained in volume are printed copies of correspondence originally sent to the Government of India either by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Trevor or Acting Resident Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Knox), or the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain (Major Clive Daly). Much of the correspondence featured in the volume can be found in the original (or as office copies) in a number of files in the two Bahrain Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. subsubseries ‘File 9 Bahrain Reforms’ (IOR/R/15/2/127-138) and ‘File 8 Miscellaneous’ (IOR/R/15/2/121-126), and the Bushire Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. subsubseries ‘File 19 Bahrain’ (IOR/R/15/1/314-77).

The printed correspondence contained in the volume covers a range of subjects:

  • Events leading up to the programme of reforms carried out in Bahrain: allegations of the oppression of Bahraini subjects by members of the Āl Khalīfah family, violence, the deteriorating economic situation;
  • The reforms proposed and implemented by British officials: replacement of Shaikh ‘Īsá by Shaikh Ḥamad as defacto ruler, economic reforms, judicial reforms, pearl diving industry reforms, customs house reforms;
  • Specific incidents of violence involving Sunnis and Shias, or Najdis and Persians.

Some of the papers in the volume are accompanied by duplicate copies:

  • Folios 61-64 are duplicates of folios 57-60;
  • Folios 68-69 are duplicates of folios 66-67;
  • Folios 81-84 are duplicates of folios 77-80.
Extent and format
1 volume (98 folios)
Arrangement

The volume's contents are arranged in approximate chronological order, starting with the earliest items at the front and finishing with the latest items at the end.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The volume is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using uncircled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . Most of the items in the volume are printed items that have their own internal pagination systems, using printed numbers in the top-right corners of recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages and the top-left corners of verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. pages, or centred at the top of both verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. and recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages. The following foliation anomalies occur: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f.

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English in Latin script
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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎11r] (38/224), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/131, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023403812.0x000027> [accessed 22 January 2020]

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