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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎58r] (132/224)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (98 folios). It was created in 30 Dec 1921-27 Jul 1924. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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presumably had been prepcred beforehand, and having read it out to the crowd,
handed it to Major Daly. Ihe gist of this letter (as reported in my telegram
No. 88, dated 15th January) is that Sheikh Hamad is prepared to take
whatever action he is directed to do by Government but is unable to do
anything without such orders. In this connection I forward herewith a copy
of a telegram from the Bahreini community dated 15th instant reporting this
incident and imploring the assistance of Government.
5. Previous to the arrival of Sheikh Hamad certain members of the
Baharnah community had presented a petition to Major Daly on the 13th
instant asking him to forward to me a copy of a monster petition signed and
sealed by hundreds of Bahrein Shiahs. These were duly forwarded to me and
a copy of each of them is annexed, for the information of Government.
6. Prior to the receipt of these petitions two Bahrein Shiah subjects
came over to Bushire by the mail steamer which brought Siieikh Hamad
from Lingah, bringing a petition to me (copy annexed) They asked for
an interview and a reply which they c^uld take back to the Bahrein Shiah
community. I interviewed them on Saturday the 12th instant, and yesterday
gave them a reply to their petition, a copy of which is annexed for inform
ation, and I told the petitioners very much what I have said in my written
reply, viz., that Borne was not built in a day, in other words. But time is
eoinc on now and six months have elapsed since we started to introduce the
reforms, and it is certain that if the Khalifah family can organize such out
rages more or less with impunity, the reforms will be a farce.
7. T enclose, for the information of the Government of India, a copy
of Maior Daly's letter, No. 13-C., dated 15th January, reporting the incident.
It will be seen from this and from the petition of the Bahrein fehiah com
munity that the punishment meted out for the last Sitrah outrage was not
sufficient. The banishment of Sheikh Selman bin Khalid to Katar is a farce,
while Sheikh Ali who was sent to Bombay at the expense of the Bahrein
Government is really now more comfortable than be has been iu his i e.
It seems necessary therefore if it is found that Sheikh Khalid or his son
Ibrahim instigated or abetted this crime to punish them more severely: banish
ment or deportation on more stringent terms seems called for, perhaps bams
ment with a term of imprisonment to start with,
8. As I have already suggested in my telegram. No. 51, dated ^ 10th
January 1 think the institution of the Levy Corps at Bahrein should be
expedited and that if the Muscat Government agrees, as many men as can
he spared should be lent to the Bahrein Government pending the raising of ^
the Len for the Bahrein Corps by the Commandant of the Muscat Levy
Corps. _ .
9 I consider that if men are available and are sent to Bahrein, as scon
as they have settied down a detachment should be sent to Sitrah to protect
the place, and its cost recovered from "'e emoUunents and revenue of SheOA
Khalid and Sheikh Ibrahim. Other detachments could ,^f,
suitable places to protect Shiahs from these outra S^'^ d t
to be placed at anyplace as the resu.l ot an ou „ v rpvpnneq of the
detachment should be met (at least as far as possible) from the ^nues 0 f the
members of the Khalitah family or Headman o the ^
instigated the outrage, or if it was committed by a Sunm Tillage, from that
^0 will be seen from the correspondence, as already reported in
my telegram. No. 90,_ dated 15 * b ^ tL wMe Khalifah
incapable ot taking action m the face of tl pp T • bein^ but I
and fleeced and oppressed, and is realiy not m sympathy with any
improving their position.
11. I have, unlers my memory plays me false, . sta ^ impossibi-
that the principal difficulty in introducing re orms in " L capable of
lity of finding anyone among the ruling family or upper class ca^u
2 and

About this item


The volume contains printed copies of Government of India confidential correspondence, relating to the Bahrain reforms. The majority of the letters contained in volume are printed copies of correspondence originally sent to the Government of India either by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Trevor or Acting Resident Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Knox), or the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain (Major Clive Daly). Much of the correspondence featured in the volume can be found in the original (or as office copies) in a number of files in the two Bahrain Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. subsubseries ‘File 9 Bahrain Reforms’ (IOR/R/15/2/127-138) and ‘File 8 Miscellaneous’ (IOR/R/15/2/121-126), and the Bushire Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. subsubseries ‘File 19 Bahrain’ (IOR/R/15/1/314-77).

The printed correspondence contained in the volume covers a range of subjects:

  • Events leading up to the programme of reforms carried out in Bahrain: allegations of the oppression of Bahraini subjects by members of the Āl Khalīfah family, violence, the deteriorating economic situation;
  • The reforms proposed and implemented by British officials: replacement of Shaikh ‘Īsá by Shaikh Ḥamad as defacto ruler, economic reforms, judicial reforms, pearl diving industry reforms, customs house reforms;
  • Specific incidents of violence involving Sunnis and Shias, or Najdis and Persians.

Some of the papers in the volume are accompanied by duplicate copies:

  • Folios 61-64 are duplicates of folios 57-60;
  • Folios 68-69 are duplicates of folios 66-67;
  • Folios 81-84 are duplicates of folios 77-80.
Extent and format
1 volume (98 folios)

The volume's contents are arranged in approximate chronological order, starting with the earliest items at the front and finishing with the latest items at the end.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The volume is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using uncircled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . Most of the items in the volume are printed items that have their own internal pagination systems, using printed numbers in the top-right corners of recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages and the top-left corners of verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. pages, or centred at the top of both verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. and recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages. The following foliation anomalies occur: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f.

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English in Latin script
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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎58r] (132/224), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/131, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 28 January 2020]

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