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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎63r] (142/224)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (98 folios). It was created in 30 Dec 1921-27 Jul 1924. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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translation of petition presented to the Political Jgent } Bahrein, for despatch
to the Mori hie the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , hy re
presentatives of the liahrein bhiah Community, on loth January
mi.
To His Excellency, etc., the Most Just, etc., Colonel A. P. Trevor,
the Exalted Consul-Gi neral oe the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
After Greetings suitable to your high Estate, we beg to inform Your
Excellency, with regard to our petition presented by our representatives, Haji
Mehdi bin Saif and Mullah Hassan ibn Shaik, dated 1st Jamad al Thani 1342,
concerning the outrage which has occurred in Sitrah and the murders of people
there, both men and women. It is not concealed, from Your Excellency, the
previous outrage at 'Ali and the deaths -which resulted. Shortly after a
further outrage occurred at Sitrah which was committed by the sons of Khalid
bin Ali 'Al Khalifeh. We informed you of that and Your Excellency did not
fail and came to Bahrein and gave us assurances of peace and safety. The
Court caused those concerned to be brought before it, and after trial, their
guilt was proved. We were awaiting the sentence of the Court upon the
guilty, when two persons were deported to India and two to Qatar. Your
Excellency doubtless knows that there is a distance of only ^ a few hours
between Bahrein and Qatar. Those who w T ere sent to Bombay live in luxury
and with financial aid from the Bahrein Government, which they enjoy and
they are well housed. If this is to be the punishment of murdeiers, ^ all the
criminals will continue their crimes and be happy and obliged with such
treatment.
We informed Your Excellency before that we were prepared to send re
presentatives to London to His Majesty the King, Sultan and Emperor of the
British Empire, to obtain orders for security m our land. Your Excellency
did not fail, and came to us and verbally promised us security. We w_ere
grateful to you and gave up the idea of sending our representatives. But
alas 1 In spite of Your Excellency's orders and the orders of the High Govern
ment, Khali 'd and his sons have again returned to their evil deeds and have
committed these crimes in spite of the Great Government. All the e 13
the High Government have been to protect the Rulers of Bahrein and they have
retained their Government, but their subjects have been neglected If God
forbid ! the Great Government is to fail to protect the subjects, let it be known
to us so that we may have resort to some other Government, such as that
Persia or its like. .
If the Great Government intends to protect the people and maintain order
in the land we beg firstly, for soldiers and protectors to be brought te all the
villages of Bahrein to give securitv and prevent the oppression ot their in a -
tents And that also is useless, eicept Khalid and his sons be deported and
punished openly and with.severity, so that others like them may take warning.
In conclusion, we beg that Your Excellency will forward this, our petition,
tn TTk Maiestv the King before the evil-doers commit further crimes in the land.
and be s'o' good as to reply to us and to issue definite orders, for
it is not possible for us to remain in the land in this condition.
5th Jamadi al Thani 1342. _ p t > i, •
Signed by persons of the Sbiah Community of Bahrein.
From the Baharnah Community, Bahrein, to the Hon ble Lieute
nant -Colonel A. P. Trevor, C.S.L, C.I.E., pomic.l Ees^ent,
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , dated the 1st Jamadi 11,1342 (—8-1-1 ^ ).
a j . U p V ipo - to briii 0 " to vour notice that we have already
represented^ petition to Your Honour and repeatedly assed^ you ^thejnst
High Government to be kind enough to^ establish order ^ informed
remove oppressions from our of people which became clear
you several times about the plunder and mui P I

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Content

The volume contains printed copies of Government of India confidential correspondence, relating to the Bahrain reforms. The majority of the letters contained in volume are printed copies of correspondence originally sent to the Government of India either by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Trevor or Acting Resident Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Knox), or the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain (Major Clive Daly). Much of the correspondence featured in the volume can be found in the original (or as office copies) in a number of files in the two Bahrain Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. subsubseries ‘File 9 Bahrain Reforms’ (IOR/R/15/2/127-138) and ‘File 8 Miscellaneous’ (IOR/R/15/2/121-126), and the Bushire Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. subsubseries ‘File 19 Bahrain’ (IOR/R/15/1/314-77).

The printed correspondence contained in the volume covers a range of subjects:

  • Events leading up to the programme of reforms carried out in Bahrain: allegations of the oppression of Bahraini subjects by members of the Āl Khalīfah family, violence, the deteriorating economic situation;
  • The reforms proposed and implemented by British officials: replacement of Shaikh ‘Īsá by Shaikh Ḥamad as defacto ruler, economic reforms, judicial reforms, pearl diving industry reforms, customs house reforms;
  • Specific incidents of violence involving Sunnis and Shias, or Najdis and Persians.

Some of the papers in the volume are accompanied by duplicate copies:

  • Folios 61-64 are duplicates of folios 57-60;
  • Folios 68-69 are duplicates of folios 66-67;
  • Folios 81-84 are duplicates of folios 77-80.
Extent and format
1 volume (98 folios)
Arrangement

The volume's contents are arranged in approximate chronological order, starting with the earliest items at the front and finishing with the latest items at the end.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The volume is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using uncircled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . Most of the items in the volume are printed items that have their own internal pagination systems, using printed numbers in the top-right corners of recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages and the top-left corners of verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. pages, or centred at the top of both verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. and recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages. The following foliation anomalies occur: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f.

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English in Latin script
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'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [‎63r] (142/224), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/131, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023403812.0x00008f> [accessed 28 January 2020]

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