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‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [‎24r] (56/822)

The record is made up of 409 folios. It was created in 1933. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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24
at ii
ADEN—The Aqrabi.
13
Melidi resigned the Sliaiklisliip inul was succeeded by his son Abdnlla.
In 1863 an Agreement (No. XXIX) was made with him, by which he
engaged not to sell, mortgage, or give for occupation, save to the l^iitish
Government, any portion of the peninsula of little Aden. In return he
was to receive an immediate payment of 3,000 dollars, and a monthly
stipend of 30 dollars.
These terms were not considered entirely satisfactory by Her Majesty's
Government, and the Resident was instructed to treat for the complete
and unreserved acquisition of the peninsula. After tedious negotiations,
which were further protracted by the necessity of investigating the claims
of other tribes to this territory, the purchase was concluded (No. XXX)
on the 2nd April 18G9 for a sum of 30,000 dollars, the stipend of the
Shaikh being at the same time raised to 40 dollars a month.
The animosity, always latent, between the Abdali and Aqrabi, broke
out in 1887, and in August of that year the Abdali besieged Bir Ahmed
in a desultory fashion. Eventually, as the British limits at Al Hiswa
were disturbed, the Resident intervened; the Abdali evacuated Aqrabi
territory, and peace was restored on the Gth September.
Negotiations were commenced in 1887 for the acquisition of a strip
of foreshore to connect the British limits at Al Hiswa and Bandar
Fukum. They were brought to a satisfactory conclusion by an Agree
ment (No. XXXI), dated the 15th July 1888, the Aqrabi Shaikh dis
posing of his title for an immediate payment of Rs. 2,000.
In 1888 a Protectorate Treaty was concluded (No. XXXII) with the
Aqrabi, similar to that arranged with several other tribes, and was
ratified on the 26th February 1890.
Shaikh Abdulla died in March 1905, and was succeeded by his son.
Shaikh Fadhl bin Abdulla bin Haidara.
In 1915 the Turkish commander at Lahej sent a Turkish flag to the
Aqrabi Shaikh to be flown on his residence. The Shaikh did not do
this, but sent it to the Resident at Aden. For this act he was vilified
by the Turkish commander, whose letter to the Shaikh was sent by the
latter to Aden. Shortly afterwards a party of Turks and their Somali
mercenaries surrounded the Shaikh's house in Bir Ahmed and he was
taken to Lahej, where he was imprisoned in fetters for about a year, and
then released and kept in Lahej under surveillance till the end of the
war. The refugees from Aqrabi territory were housed and maintained
in Aden until the end of the war.
The Aqrabi Shaikh and his subjects were given a Slim of Rs. 24,000
with which to rebuild Bir Ahmed.
His cross annual revenue amounts to about Rs. 2,000. His tribesmen
n
number about 1,000.
:

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Content

The volume is a fifth edition of a collection of historic treaties, engagements and sanads (charters) signed between representatives of the British Government or East India Company, and foreign rulers, dignitories or government officials, in the regions of Aden, south west Arabia, the Arab coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , including Muscat and Oman, Baluchistan, and the north-west frontier province (present-day Pakistan). This volume, originally compiled by Charles Umpherston Aitchison, Under Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department, was revised in 1930 and published in 1933 by the Manager of Publications in Dehli, under the authority of the Government of India.

Part 1 contains treaties and engagements relating to Aden and the southwest coast of Arabia:

  • An historical overview of British (and Turkish) involvement in the region, including descriptions of the treaties and engagements signed;
  • The Anglo-Turkish Convention (in French) respecting the boundaries of Aden, dated 9 March 1914;
  • Treaties and conventions, agreed between the years 1802-1917, at Aden and with the Abdali tribe, the Subeihi, Fadhli, Aqrabi, Aulaqi, Irqa, Lower Haura, Beihan, Yafai, Audhali, Haushabi, Alawi, the Amirate of Dhala, the Wahidi, Kathiri, the Sultanate of Mukalla, Soqotra [Suquṭrā] and Qishn, Yemen, and the Idrisi. The treaties cover agreements of commerce, friendship and protection; agreements for the cession or purchase of land, for the abolition of the slave trade, storage of coal, protection of shipwrecked British sailors.

Part 2 contains treaties and engagements relating to the Arab principalities of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , divided into the following areas: 1) The Wahhābī and Nejd [Najd]; 2) Bahrain; 3) The Trucial Arab shaikhs (of Oman); and 4) Kuwait:

  • An historic overview of the agreements made between the British and the region’s rulers, organised by tribes and/or geographical locality;
  • Agreements and treaties signed with the Wahhābī tribe, including: an agreement between the Wahhābī and British Government over aggression towards the Arab tribes, dated 21 April 1866; a series of conventions and treaties agreed in the 1920s, establishing boundaries and relations between the Kingdom of Najd and its neighbours; the Treaty of Jeddah, dated 20 May 1927;
  • Agreements and treaties signed with the ruler of Bahrain, relating to: piracy and slavery (1820), abstention from entering into relations with foreign powers (1880, 1892), arms trafficking, wireless telegraphy (1912), and oil exploitation (1914);
  • Agreements and treaties signed with the shaikhs of the Arab coast, relating to respect for British property (1806), piracy (1820), the slave trade (1838, 1873), the maintenance of maritime peace in perpetuity (1853), the Anglo-Qatar treaty (1916); oil exploitation (1922);
  • Agreement and treaties signed with the ruler of Kuwait, relating to: arms trafficking, exclusive post office rights (1904), pearling and sponge fishing concessions (1911), wireless telegraphy (1912), oil exploitation (1913), boundaries between Kuwait and Najd (1922) and Kuwait and Iraq (1923).

Part 3 contains treaties and engagements relating to Oman, chiefly Muscat but also Sohar:

  • An historical overview of the Sultanate of Muscat, and the agreements made between Britain and Muscat;
  • Treaties and conventions, agreed between the years 1798 and 1929, including: the exclusion of the French from the Sultan of Muscat’s territories (1798); suppression of the slave trade (1822, 1873); commerce (1839); cession of the Kuria Muria islands [Jazā'ir Khurīyā Murīyā] (1854); the independence of Zanzibar (1861, 1862); telegraphic communications (1864, 1865); jurisdiction of Indian subjects at Muscat (1873); friendship and commerce (1891); coalfields at Ṣūr (1902); arms traffic (1919); prolongation of the commercial treaty (1891); treaty of peace between the Sultan of Muscat and Chief of Sohar (1839).

Part 4 contains treaties and engagements relating to Baluchistan:

  • An historic overview of the region and its districts, including British involvement in Baluchistan, organised by the Kalat [Kelat] Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , Sibi Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , and British Baluchistan and its territories;
  • The treaties and conventions listed for Kelat, agreed between the years 1839 and 1925, include: an engagement between the British Government and the Khan of Kelat (1839), the Khan of Kelat’s allegiance and submission to the British Government (1841); various agreements for the protection of the Indo-European telegraph line; cession of lands for the Kandahar Railway (1880), Mushkaf-Bolan Railway (1894) and Nushki Railway (1906); demarcation of the boundary between Persian Baluchistan and Kelat (1896);
  • The treaties and conventions listed for Sibi and British Baluchistan, agreed between the years 1884 and 1897, including: cession to the British Government of rights to petroleum and other mineral oils (1885); agreement on the Bargha and Largha boundary line (1895), grazing fees for animals and responsibility for good behaviour within the British border at Zhob, signed by the Suliman Khel Ghilzai (1897).

Part 5 contains treaties and engagements relating to the northwest frontier province:

The appendices contain a number of treaties signed between foreign rulers, including treaties agreed between Muscat and the United States, French and Dutch Governments, as well as British Parliament acts and memoranda related to the treaties and engagements in the volume.

Extent and format
409 folios
Arrangement

The volume is arranged into five key geographical regions: Aden and the southwest coast of Arabia, the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Oman (Muscat) and Sohar, Baluchistan, and the northwest frontier province. The main body of the volume, containing the narrative treaties, is arranged into parts covering these five regions. The appendices at the end of the volume is likewise arranged by the five regions.

Each part (or region) is further subdivided into a number of smaller units, and in some cases further subdivided into smaller units. These subdivisions can be tribal, geographical and administrative in nature. Within each part, the narrative treaties are numbered with Roman numerals, restarting at I at the beginning of each part.

There is a contents page at the front of the volume (ff.2-17) which lists the geographical regions, their subdivisions and treaties. The contents pages refers to the volume’s pagination system. There is a subject index, arranged alphabetically, at the end of the volume (ff.363-405) which also refers to the volume’s pagination system.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The volume’s foliation sequence uses circled pencil numbers, located in the top-right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 1, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 405. Total number of folios: 405. Total number of folios including covers and flysheets: 409.

Pagination: The volume has a series of printed pagination sequences, expressed in Roman numerals for the contents, appendices and index pages, and in Arabic numerals for the volume’s main content matter. These numbers are located in the top-left corner of versos and the top-right corner of rectos.

Written in
English and French in Latin script
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‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [‎24r] (56/822), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/G3/12, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023462214.0x000039> [accessed 20 September 2019]

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