‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [36r] (80/822)
The record is made up of 409 folios. It was created in 1933. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
ADEN— Y emen.
was then the great depot for the trade of soiithern Arabia, and a century
later a factory was also opened by the French. After the expulsion of
the Turks in 1630 the whole of Yemen came under the rule of the
Imams of Sanaa; but at the time of Carsten Niebuhr's visit to Sanaa in
1763, the native Arab tribes of the provinces of Aden, Abu Arish, Taiz
and others, had thrown off allegiance to the Imams. In 1799, when the
British Government took measures to oppose the expected invasion of
India by the French and to revive the lost trade of the Red Sea,
Dr. Pringle was deputed to Sanaa with presents from the Governor-
General, and obtained from the Imam, Ali Mansur, orders to the
Governors of Mocha, Ilodeidah and Loheiyya to give everv facility to
trade. Two years afterwards an effort was made by Sir Home Popham,
Ambassador to the States of Arabia, to negotiate a commercial treaty
with Sanaa; but he was treated with indignity by the Governor of Mocha,
and the terms of the proposed treaty were rejected by the Imam.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century Imam Ali Mansur
suffered severely at the hands of the Wahhabis, who overran and wrested
from him some of the best districts of his dominions. In 1816, however,
Muhammad Ali Pasha destroyed the TV ahhabi power and restored these
districts to Ahmed, the son and successor of Imam Ali Mansur, in consi
deration of an annual tribute of 100,000 dollars. Ahmed was succeeded
in 1817 by his son, Abdulla, who was unable to retain the provinces which
had been restored to his father.
In 1817, in consequence of a dispute in which an Arab had been
temporarily detained at the factory at Mocha, the British Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. was
attacked and plundered, and a British officer was subjected to insult by
the Governor. After some delay a British squadron was sent to demand
satisfaction for this outrage. On the 26th December 1820 the fort of
Mocha was taken, and shortly afterwards a public apology was made for
the indignity offered to the British Government, and a Treaty (No.
LXXVI) was signed by the Imam of Sanaa and his Council, in 1821,
defining the rights to be enjoyed by British subjects, and reducing the
export duty on goods to 2\ per cent. This Treaty was carelessly framed
and it was afterwards discovered that serious discrepancies existed
between the English and Arabic versions. The Imam refused to accept
any modification of the latter. To preserve friendly relations, the
British Government yielded every point, except a clause in the English
version of the 0th article, stipulating that the servants of the factory
should be amenable only to the jurisdiction of the Resident. This was
altogether omitted in the Arabic version. The Imam was informed that
all other points were conceded, but that, if he attempted to seize or
punish any person, of whatever nation, in the exclusive employment of
the Resident, the Resident would withdraw, and such further measures
would be adopted as might seem expedient to the British Government.
About this item
The volume is a fifth edition of a collection of historic treaties, engagements and sanads (charters) signed between representatives of the British Government or East India Company, and foreign rulers, dignitories or government officials, in the regions of Aden, south west Arabia, the Arab coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , including Muscat and Oman, Baluchistan, and the north-west frontier province (present-day Pakistan). This volume, originally compiled by Charles Umpherston Aitchison, Under Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department, was revised in 1930 and published in 1933 by the Manager of Publications in Dehli, under the authority of the Government of India.
Part 1 contains treaties and engagements relating to Aden and the southwest coast of Arabia:
- An historical overview of British (and Turkish) involvement in the region, including descriptions of the treaties and engagements signed;
- The Anglo-Turkish Convention (in French) respecting the boundaries of Aden, dated 9 March 1914;
- Treaties and conventions, agreed between the years 1802-1917, at Aden and with the Abdali tribe, the Subeihi, Fadhli, Aqrabi, Aulaqi, Irqa, Lower Haura, Beihan, Yafai, Audhali, Haushabi, Alawi, the Amirate of Dhala, the Wahidi, Kathiri, the Sultanate of Mukalla, Soqotra [Suquṭrā] and Qishn, Yemen, and the Idrisi. The treaties cover agreements of commerce, friendship and protection; agreements for the cession or purchase of land, for the abolition of the slave trade, storage of coal, protection of shipwrecked British sailors.
Part 2 contains treaties and engagements relating to the Arab principalities of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , divided into the following areas: 1) The Wahhābī and Nejd [Najd]; 2) Bahrain; 3) The Trucial Arab shaikhs (of Oman); and 4) Kuwait:
- An historic overview of the agreements made between the British and the region’s rulers, organised by tribes and/or geographical locality;
- Agreements and treaties signed with the Wahhābī tribe, including: an agreement between the Wahhābī and British Government over aggression towards the Arab tribes, dated 21 April 1866; a series of conventions and treaties agreed in the 1920s, establishing boundaries and relations between the Kingdom of Najd and its neighbours; the Treaty of Jeddah, dated 20 May 1927;
- Agreements and treaties signed with the ruler of Bahrain, relating to: piracy and slavery (1820), abstention from entering into relations with foreign powers (1880, 1892), arms trafficking, wireless telegraphy (1912), and oil exploitation (1914);
- Agreements and treaties signed with the shaikhs of the Arab coast, relating to respect for British property (1806), piracy (1820), the slave trade (1838, 1873), the maintenance of maritime peace in perpetuity (1853), the Anglo-Qatar treaty (1916); oil exploitation (1922);
- Agreement and treaties signed with the ruler of Kuwait, relating to: arms trafficking, exclusive post office rights (1904), pearling and sponge fishing concessions (1911), wireless telegraphy (1912), oil exploitation (1913), boundaries between Kuwait and Najd (1922) and Kuwait and Iraq (1923).
Part 3 contains treaties and engagements relating to Oman, chiefly Muscat but also Sohar:
- An historical overview of the Sultanate of Muscat, and the agreements made between Britain and Muscat;
- Treaties and conventions, agreed between the years 1798 and 1929, including: the exclusion of the French from the Sultan of Muscat’s territories (1798); suppression of the slave trade (1822, 1873); commerce (1839); cession of the Kuria Muria islands [Jazā'ir Khurīyā Murīyā] (1854); the independence of Zanzibar (1861, 1862); telegraphic communications (1864, 1865); jurisdiction of Indian subjects at Muscat (1873); friendship and commerce (1891); coalfields at Ṣūr (1902); arms traffic (1919); prolongation of the commercial treaty (1891); treaty of peace between the Sultan of Muscat and Chief of Sohar (1839).
Part 4 contains treaties and engagements relating to Baluchistan:
- An historic overview of the region and its districts, including British involvement in Baluchistan, organised by the Kalat [Kelat] Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , Sibi Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , and British Baluchistan and its territories;
- The treaties and conventions listed for Kelat, agreed between the years 1839 and 1925, include: an engagement between the British Government and the Khan of Kelat (1839), the Khan of Kelat’s allegiance and submission to the British Government (1841); various agreements for the protection of the Indo-European telegraph line; cession of lands for the Kandahar Railway (1880), Mushkaf-Bolan Railway (1894) and Nushki Railway (1906); demarcation of the boundary between Persian Baluchistan and Kelat (1896);
- The treaties and conventions listed for Sibi and British Baluchistan, agreed between the years 1884 and 1897, including: cession to the British Government of rights to petroleum and other mineral oils (1885); agreement on the Bargha and Largha boundary line (1895), grazing fees for animals and responsibility for good behaviour within the British border at Zhob, signed by the Suliman Khel Ghilzai (1897).
Part 5 contains treaties and engagements relating to the northwest frontier province:
- An historic overview of British involvement and administration of the province;
- The treaties and conventions agreed in the province, arranged as follows : 1) Hazara District; 2) Dir, Swat and Chitral Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; 3) Peshawar District; 4) Khyber Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; 5) Kohat District; 6) Kurram Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; 7) Bannu District; 8) North Waziristan Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; South Waziristan Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. . The agreements relate to: relations with the British; maintenance of peace; acceptance of terms; protection of borders and communications; commerce; exclusion or expulsion from certain districts of undesirables, including ‘Hindustani fanatics’.
The appendices contain a number of treaties signed between foreign rulers, including treaties agreed between Muscat and the United States, French and Dutch Governments, as well as British Parliament acts and memoranda related to the treaties and engagements in the volume.
- Extent and format
- 409 folios
The volume is arranged into five key geographical regions: Aden and the southwest coast of Arabia, the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Oman (Muscat) and Sohar, Baluchistan, and the northwest frontier province. The main body of the volume, containing the narrative treaties, is arranged into parts covering these five regions. The appendices at the end of the volume is likewise arranged by the five regions.
Each part (or region) is further subdivided into a number of smaller units, and in some cases further subdivided into smaller units. These subdivisions can be tribal, geographical and administrative in nature. Within each part, the narrative treaties are numbered with Roman numerals, restarting at I at the beginning of each part.
There is a contents page at the front of the volume (ff.2-17) which lists the geographical regions, their subdivisions and treaties. The contents pages refers to the volume’s pagination system. There is a subject index, arranged alphabetically, at the end of the volume (ff.363-405) which also refers to the volume’s pagination system.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: The volume’s foliation sequence uses circled pencil numbers, located in the top-right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 1, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 405. Total number of folios: 405. Total number of folios including covers and flysheets: 409.
Pagination: The volume has a series of printed pagination sequences, expressed in Roman numerals for the contents, appendices and index pages, and in Arabic numerals for the volume’s main content matter. These numbers are located in the top-left corner of versos and the top-right corner of rectos.
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- English and French in Latin script View the complete information for this record
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‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [36r] (80/822), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/G3/12, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023462214.0x000051> [accessed 22 September 2019]
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- front, back, spine, edge, head, tail, front-i, i-r:i-v, 1r:405v, ii-r:ii-v, back-i
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