‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [36v] (81/822)
The record is made up of 409 folios. It was created in 1933. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
For many years the country of Sanaa was in a state of anarchy.
In 1832 Mocha and all the sea-coast fell under the suzerainty of the
Turks; and when, in 1840, a Commercial Treaty (No. LXXVII) was
concluded with Sharif Husein bin Ali, Governor of Mocha, by Captain
Moresby, it became a matter of doubt whether the Governor had any right
to conclude a treaty as a principal. Moreover, some of its provisions
were not approved by the British Government, and others were not ob
served by the Sharif. The matter Avas referred to Constantinople, where
the dispute was amicably adjusted; but the Treaty was never ratified. Ali
Mansur, who succeeded his father as Imam of Sanaa in 1834, was deposed
three years after. He again succeeded to power in 1844, on the death
of his uncle, only to be once more deposed in 1845 by Muhammad Yahya,
a distant relative of the family. Mocha and the coast, which had been
recovered by the Imam from the Turks for a time, were finally lost in
1848. Muhammad \ahya, in 1849, swore allegiance to the Porte, and
agi eed to hold Sanaa as a vassal of the Sultan, paying to him half the
re\enues and receiving a Turkish garrison in his capital. This so incensed
the inhabitants that they rose against the Turks, massacred them, and
reinstated Ali Mansur, who ordered Muhammad Yahya to be put to
death. Within a few months Imam Ali Mansur fell into the hands
of Ghalib, the son of Muhammad \ ahya, who contented himself with con
fiscating his property. The people of Sanaa, however, refused to
acknowledge the authority of Ghalib, and elected a governor. Shaikh
Ahmed Ali Khemiah, from among their own body. Ghalib led a pro
fligate life m an obscure village a few miles from Sanaa till 1858, when
he was recalled and reinstated in the government with the title of A1
Hadi, but with merely nominal power. During the internal revolutions
m Sanaa and the desultory warfare with the Turks, the Imams repeatedly
endeavoured to enlist the aid and advice of the British Government who
owever, rigidly abstained from all interference in their affairs.
In I8 56 , nevertheless, when the Beni Asir tribe marched against
Hodeidah with a strong force, they were deterred from attacking it by the
presence of two British ships which had been sent there for the purpose of
P J 0 +l! C K ng - ri sub j ects - Moreover, cholera broke out in the camp
tlie besiegers and they retired in haste.
0 tte I!e " i A f tribe again rebellecl 8 ? ainst the Turks and re-
ccupied the provinces from whieh they had been expelled. The distur-
in No Wer ) e T r T £ PUt d0W11 ky E OT tia » troops, hut were renewed
wlthoTth f ; 1 Porte then to deal with the revolt
. . ! f v a ' d o£ he Khethve, and a force of 15,000 troops was des-
lehrt isloT A, a 6 Saltan ' Bef0rG tl,e arrival of tilis I*™ i"
Febrnary 1872, the Ahl A s ir had attached Hodeidah, hut were repulsed
by the Turkish garrison. The Turkish expeditionary force attacked and
About this item
The volume is a fifth edition of a collection of historic treaties, engagements and sanads (charters) signed between representatives of the British Government or East India Company, and foreign rulers, dignitories or government officials, in the regions of Aden, south west Arabia, the Arab coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , including Muscat and Oman, Baluchistan, and the north-west frontier province (present-day Pakistan). This volume, originally compiled by Charles Umpherston Aitchison, Under Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department, was revised in 1930 and published in 1933 by the Manager of Publications in Dehli, under the authority of the Government of India.
Part 1 contains treaties and engagements relating to Aden and the southwest coast of Arabia:
- An historical overview of British (and Turkish) involvement in the region, including descriptions of the treaties and engagements signed;
- The Anglo-Turkish Convention (in French) respecting the boundaries of Aden, dated 9 March 1914;
- Treaties and conventions, agreed between the years 1802-1917, at Aden and with the Abdali tribe, the Subeihi, Fadhli, Aqrabi, Aulaqi, Irqa, Lower Haura, Beihan, Yafai, Audhali, Haushabi, Alawi, the Amirate of Dhala, the Wahidi, Kathiri, the Sultanate of Mukalla, Soqotra [Suquṭrā] and Qishn, Yemen, and the Idrisi. The treaties cover agreements of commerce, friendship and protection; agreements for the cession or purchase of land, for the abolition of the slave trade, storage of coal, protection of shipwrecked British sailors.
Part 2 contains treaties and engagements relating to the Arab principalities of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , divided into the following areas: 1) The Wahhābī and Nejd [Najd]; 2) Bahrain; 3) The Trucial Arab shaikhs (of Oman); and 4) Kuwait:
- An historic overview of the agreements made between the British and the region’s rulers, organised by tribes and/or geographical locality;
- Agreements and treaties signed with the Wahhābī tribe, including: an agreement between the Wahhābī and British Government over aggression towards the Arab tribes, dated 21 April 1866; a series of conventions and treaties agreed in the 1920s, establishing boundaries and relations between the Kingdom of Najd and its neighbours; the Treaty of Jeddah, dated 20 May 1927;
- Agreements and treaties signed with the ruler of Bahrain, relating to: piracy and slavery (1820), abstention from entering into relations with foreign powers (1880, 1892), arms trafficking, wireless telegraphy (1912), and oil exploitation (1914);
- Agreements and treaties signed with the shaikhs of the Arab coast, relating to respect for British property (1806), piracy (1820), the slave trade (1838, 1873), the maintenance of maritime peace in perpetuity (1853), the Anglo-Qatar treaty (1916); oil exploitation (1922);
- Agreement and treaties signed with the ruler of Kuwait, relating to: arms trafficking, exclusive post office rights (1904), pearling and sponge fishing concessions (1911), wireless telegraphy (1912), oil exploitation (1913), boundaries between Kuwait and Najd (1922) and Kuwait and Iraq (1923).
Part 3 contains treaties and engagements relating to Oman, chiefly Muscat but also Sohar:
- An historical overview of the Sultanate of Muscat, and the agreements made between Britain and Muscat;
- Treaties and conventions, agreed between the years 1798 and 1929, including: the exclusion of the French from the Sultan of Muscat’s territories (1798); suppression of the slave trade (1822, 1873); commerce (1839); cession of the Kuria Muria islands [Jazā'ir Khurīyā Murīyā] (1854); the independence of Zanzibar (1861, 1862); telegraphic communications (1864, 1865); jurisdiction of Indian subjects at Muscat (1873); friendship and commerce (1891); coalfields at Ṣūr (1902); arms traffic (1919); prolongation of the commercial treaty (1891); treaty of peace between the Sultan of Muscat and Chief of Sohar (1839).
Part 4 contains treaties and engagements relating to Baluchistan:
- An historic overview of the region and its districts, including British involvement in Baluchistan, organised by the Kalat [Kelat] Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , Sibi Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , and British Baluchistan and its territories;
- The treaties and conventions listed for Kelat, agreed between the years 1839 and 1925, include: an engagement between the British Government and the Khan of Kelat (1839), the Khan of Kelat’s allegiance and submission to the British Government (1841); various agreements for the protection of the Indo-European telegraph line; cession of lands for the Kandahar Railway (1880), Mushkaf-Bolan Railway (1894) and Nushki Railway (1906); demarcation of the boundary between Persian Baluchistan and Kelat (1896);
- The treaties and conventions listed for Sibi and British Baluchistan, agreed between the years 1884 and 1897, including: cession to the British Government of rights to petroleum and other mineral oils (1885); agreement on the Bargha and Largha boundary line (1895), grazing fees for animals and responsibility for good behaviour within the British border at Zhob, signed by the Suliman Khel Ghilzai (1897).
Part 5 contains treaties and engagements relating to the northwest frontier province:
- An historic overview of British involvement and administration of the province;
- The treaties and conventions agreed in the province, arranged as follows : 1) Hazara District; 2) Dir, Swat and Chitral Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; 3) Peshawar District; 4) Khyber Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; 5) Kohat District; 6) Kurram Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; 7) Bannu District; 8) North Waziristan Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; South Waziristan Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. . The agreements relate to: relations with the British; maintenance of peace; acceptance of terms; protection of borders and communications; commerce; exclusion or expulsion from certain districts of undesirables, including ‘Hindustani fanatics’.
The appendices contain a number of treaties signed between foreign rulers, including treaties agreed between Muscat and the United States, French and Dutch Governments, as well as British Parliament acts and memoranda related to the treaties and engagements in the volume.
- Extent and format
- 409 folios
The volume is arranged into five key geographical regions: Aden and the southwest coast of Arabia, the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Oman (Muscat) and Sohar, Baluchistan, and the northwest frontier province. The main body of the volume, containing the narrative treaties, is arranged into parts covering these five regions. The appendices at the end of the volume is likewise arranged by the five regions.
Each part (or region) is further subdivided into a number of smaller units, and in some cases further subdivided into smaller units. These subdivisions can be tribal, geographical and administrative in nature. Within each part, the narrative treaties are numbered with Roman numerals, restarting at I at the beginning of each part.
There is a contents page at the front of the volume (ff.2-17) which lists the geographical regions, their subdivisions and treaties. The contents pages refers to the volume’s pagination system. There is a subject index, arranged alphabetically, at the end of the volume (ff.363-405) which also refers to the volume’s pagination system.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: The volume’s foliation sequence uses circled pencil numbers, located in the top-right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 1, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 405. Total number of folios: 405. Total number of folios including covers and flysheets: 409.
Pagination: The volume has a series of printed pagination sequences, expressed in Roman numerals for the contents, appendices and index pages, and in Arabic numerals for the volume’s main content matter. These numbers are located in the top-left corner of versos and the top-right corner of rectos.
- Written in
- English and French in Latin script View the complete information for this record
Use and share this item
- Share this item
‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [36v] (81/822), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/G3/12, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023462214.0x000052> [accessed 18 August 2019]
Copy and paste the code below into your web page where you would like to embed the image.
<meta charset="utf-8"><a href="https://www.qdl.qa/en/archive/81055/vdc_100023462214.0x000052">‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [‎36v] (81/822)</a> <a href="https://www.qdl.qa/en/archive/81055/vdc_100023462214.0x000052"> <img src="https://images.qdl.qa/iiif/images/81055/vdc_100000000884.0x0003bd/IOR_L_PS_20_G3_12_0081.jp2/full/!280,240/0/default.jpg" alt="" /> </a>
Copyright: How to use this content
- ‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’
- front, back, spine, edge, head, tail, front-i, i-r:i-v, 1r:405v, ii-r:ii-v, back-i
- East India Company, the Board of Control, the India Office, or other British Government Department
- Usage terms
- Open Government Licence