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‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [‎153v] (315/822)

The record is made up of 409 folios. It was created in 1933. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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272
OMAN (MUSCAT).
of time, and they would not be prevented for raore than a quarter or half
an hour from continuing their voyage.
In consequence of some discussion regarding the right of Saiyid Said
to duty on goods transhipped in his ports, he issued "Rules (No. YII) in
1846 for the levy of the full duty of 5 per cent, on goods transhipped,
but exempting from duty ships putting into his harbours from stress of
weather, and all stores of the British Government landed at his ports.
In 1854 Saiyid Said ceded (No. VIII) to the British Crown the Kuria
Muria islands on the south coast of Arabia. The islands were valuable
only for the guano deposits which were found on them and which are now
exhausted. In 1874 a piratical outrage was committed by the Jaaferah
section of the Bani Bu Ali tribe on two trading vessels at Hallaniyah in
these islands, for which they were fined 000 dollars, and a promise of
future good behaviour was exacted from them,
During the later years of his rule the affairs of Saiyid Said in his
Asiatic dominions fell into much confusion, owing partly to his prolonged
residence at Zanzibar, which in 1840 he made the permanent seat of his
government, and partly to the incapacity of the agents whom he left at
Muscat, and latterly of his son Saiyid Thuwaini. On more than one
occasion his power was saved only by the intervention of the British Gov
ernment. His contests with the Wahhabis in 1832 and again in 1845 and
1852 are described in Part II of this volume. In 1833 Saiyid Said
concluded a treaty with the United States of America,* and in 1844 with
France.t In 1880 a Consul for the former and in 1881 a Consular Agent
for the latter were appointed.
I he American Consulate was closed in 1915 and the French Consulate
in 1920.
Saiyid Said died in 1856. In 1844 he had intimated his desire to
appoint his sons, Saiyid Majid and Saiyid Thuwaini, as his successors
in his African and Asiatic dominions respectively, and had appointed
them his deputies. Saiyid Thuwaini accordingly succeeded to the gov
ernment of Muscat on his father's death, and Saiyid Majid to that of
Zanzibar. In virtue of his •succession to Oman, Saiyid Thuwaini
claimed also feudal supremacy over Zanzibar, and prepared to
establish his claim by force of arms. The dispute was submitted to the
arbitration of Lord Canning, who in 1861 decided (No. IX) that Zanzibar
should l)e independent of Muscat, but should pay an annual subsidy
of 40,000 crowns.
A rticm 3. •
It is known that the vessels belonging to His Highness the Sultan of Muscat
and those oelongmg to his subjects coming from the Arabian and Red Seas do
not bring slaves Irom those parts to the territories of the Sultan of Muscat which
are m Africa, accordingly English men-of-war shall not search nor trouble them.
* See Appendix No. T.
t See Appendix No. II.

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Content

The volume is a fifth edition of a collection of historic treaties, engagements and sanads (charters) signed between representatives of the British Government or East India Company, and foreign rulers, dignitories or government officials, in the regions of Aden, south west Arabia, the Arab coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , including Muscat and Oman, Baluchistan, and the north-west frontier province (present-day Pakistan). This volume, originally compiled by Charles Umpherston Aitchison, Under Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department, was revised in 1930 and published in 1933 by the Manager of Publications in Dehli, under the authority of the Government of India.

Part 1 contains treaties and engagements relating to Aden and the southwest coast of Arabia:

  • An historical overview of British (and Turkish) involvement in the region, including descriptions of the treaties and engagements signed;
  • The Anglo-Turkish Convention (in French) respecting the boundaries of Aden, dated 9 March 1914;
  • Treaties and conventions, agreed between the years 1802-1917, at Aden and with the Abdali tribe, the Subeihi, Fadhli, Aqrabi, Aulaqi, Irqa, Lower Haura, Beihan, Yafai, Audhali, Haushabi, Alawi, the Amirate of Dhala, the Wahidi, Kathiri, the Sultanate of Mukalla, Soqotra [Suquṭrā] and Qishn, Yemen, and the Idrisi. The treaties cover agreements of commerce, friendship and protection; agreements for the cession or purchase of land, for the abolition of the slave trade, storage of coal, protection of shipwrecked British sailors.

Part 2 contains treaties and engagements relating to the Arab principalities of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , divided into the following areas: 1) The Wahhābī and Nejd [Najd]; 2) Bahrain; 3) The Trucial Arab shaikhs (of Oman); and 4) Kuwait:

  • An historic overview of the agreements made between the British and the region’s rulers, organised by tribes and/or geographical locality;
  • Agreements and treaties signed with the Wahhābī tribe, including: an agreement between the Wahhābī and British Government over aggression towards the Arab tribes, dated 21 April 1866; a series of conventions and treaties agreed in the 1920s, establishing boundaries and relations between the Kingdom of Najd and its neighbours; the Treaty of Jeddah, dated 20 May 1927;
  • Agreements and treaties signed with the ruler of Bahrain, relating to: piracy and slavery (1820), abstention from entering into relations with foreign powers (1880, 1892), arms trafficking, wireless telegraphy (1912), and oil exploitation (1914);
  • Agreements and treaties signed with the shaikhs of the Arab coast, relating to respect for British property (1806), piracy (1820), the slave trade (1838, 1873), the maintenance of maritime peace in perpetuity (1853), the Anglo-Qatar treaty (1916); oil exploitation (1922);
  • Agreement and treaties signed with the ruler of Kuwait, relating to: arms trafficking, exclusive post office rights (1904), pearling and sponge fishing concessions (1911), wireless telegraphy (1912), oil exploitation (1913), boundaries between Kuwait and Najd (1922) and Kuwait and Iraq (1923).

Part 3 contains treaties and engagements relating to Oman, chiefly Muscat but also Sohar:

  • An historical overview of the Sultanate of Muscat, and the agreements made between Britain and Muscat;
  • Treaties and conventions, agreed between the years 1798 and 1929, including: the exclusion of the French from the Sultan of Muscat’s territories (1798); suppression of the slave trade (1822, 1873); commerce (1839); cession of the Kuria Muria islands [Jazā'ir Khurīyā Murīyā] (1854); the independence of Zanzibar (1861, 1862); telegraphic communications (1864, 1865); jurisdiction of Indian subjects at Muscat (1873); friendship and commerce (1891); coalfields at Ṣūr (1902); arms traffic (1919); prolongation of the commercial treaty (1891); treaty of peace between the Sultan of Muscat and Chief of Sohar (1839).

Part 4 contains treaties and engagements relating to Baluchistan:

  • An historic overview of the region and its districts, including British involvement in Baluchistan, organised by the Kalat [Kelat] Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , Sibi Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , and British Baluchistan and its territories;
  • The treaties and conventions listed for Kelat, agreed between the years 1839 and 1925, include: an engagement between the British Government and the Khan of Kelat (1839), the Khan of Kelat’s allegiance and submission to the British Government (1841); various agreements for the protection of the Indo-European telegraph line; cession of lands for the Kandahar Railway (1880), Mushkaf-Bolan Railway (1894) and Nushki Railway (1906); demarcation of the boundary between Persian Baluchistan and Kelat (1896);
  • The treaties and conventions listed for Sibi and British Baluchistan, agreed between the years 1884 and 1897, including: cession to the British Government of rights to petroleum and other mineral oils (1885); agreement on the Bargha and Largha boundary line (1895), grazing fees for animals and responsibility for good behaviour within the British border at Zhob, signed by the Suliman Khel Ghilzai (1897).

Part 5 contains treaties and engagements relating to the northwest frontier province:

The appendices contain a number of treaties signed between foreign rulers, including treaties agreed between Muscat and the United States, French and Dutch Governments, as well as British Parliament acts and memoranda related to the treaties and engagements in the volume.

Extent and format
409 folios
Arrangement

The volume is arranged into five key geographical regions: Aden and the southwest coast of Arabia, the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Oman (Muscat) and Sohar, Baluchistan, and the northwest frontier province. The main body of the volume, containing the narrative treaties, is arranged into parts covering these five regions. The appendices at the end of the volume is likewise arranged by the five regions.

Each part (or region) is further subdivided into a number of smaller units, and in some cases further subdivided into smaller units. These subdivisions can be tribal, geographical and administrative in nature. Within each part, the narrative treaties are numbered with Roman numerals, restarting at I at the beginning of each part.

There is a contents page at the front of the volume (ff.2-17) which lists the geographical regions, their subdivisions and treaties. The contents pages refers to the volume’s pagination system. There is a subject index, arranged alphabetically, at the end of the volume (ff.363-405) which also refers to the volume’s pagination system.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The volume’s foliation sequence uses circled pencil numbers, located in the top-right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 1, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 405. Total number of folios: 405. Total number of folios including covers and flysheets: 409.

Pagination: The volume has a series of printed pagination sequences, expressed in Roman numerals for the contents, appendices and index pages, and in Arabic numerals for the volume’s main content matter. These numbers are located in the top-left corner of versos and the top-right corner of rectos.

Written in
English and French in Latin script
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‘A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat (Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province’ [‎153v] (315/822), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/G3/12, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023462215.0x000074> [accessed 18 October 2018]

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