'British interests in Arabia' [2r] (3/4)
The record is made up of 1 file (2 folios). It was created in 20 Jan 1917. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
making the ruler of the Hejaz sufficiently strong to be able to pose as an
independent sovereign. This again depends upon keeping the Christian
Powers at a sufficient distance. But an Italian occupation of the \einen
would—from the relations in which the two regions stand to one another—
make Jta^ the mistress of the Hejaz. " If Al Yemen goes, Islam is gone,"
an Arab Saiyid said to Colonel Jacob as long ago as 1912.
These are some of the reasons for which we took the precaution of
providing in the Anglo-French Convention that " the British and French
" Governments agree that they will not themselves acquire and will not
" consent to a third Power acquiring territorial possessions in the Arabian
" peninsula." For the present purpose a sphere of influence is equivalent
to territorial possession.
20th January 1917
About this item
This memorandum was written by Sir Frederic Arthur Hirtzel in January 1917. Its purpose is to explain 'why the exclusion of Italy from Western and Southern Arabia and the Red Sea littoral is important in British interests'. It notes the importance of Arabia lying as it does along two of the main approaches to India from Europe. Hirtzel's memorandum also notes the absence of an effective state in Arabia, and the concomitant influence of tribes and their chiefs.
It reviews the strategic importance of Aden and its protectorate along with the significance of the Aden-Yemen frontier in the context of British relations with the Imam of Sanaa and Turkey (paragraphs 4-5). It notes that the Italian ambitions are mainly focused on the Yemen and that the Italo-Turkish war made Italy the most unpopular 'Christian power' in the Muslim world. It analyses the implications of any British consent to an Italian occupation of the Yemen.
It concludes that the 'present war has shown the use that may be made against us of Islam' and contends that the success of H M Government in the Middle East 'depends to a large extent on the transfer of the Caliphate from Turkey to Arabia. This in turn depends on the possibility of making the ruler of the Hejaz sufficiently strong to be able to pose as an independent sovereign. This again depends upon keeping the Christian powers at a sufficient distance.' The memorandum finishes by noting that it was for these reasons Britain took the precaution of inserting in the Anglo-French convention [Sykes-Picot agreement] that the British and French Governments agree that they will not themselves acquire and will not consent to a third Power acquiring territorial possessions in the Arabian peninsula with a sphere of influence being seen as equivalent to territorial possession.
- Extent and format
- 1 file (2 folios)
The memorandum consists of eleven paragraphs.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: The foliation sequence commences at the first folio and terminates at the last folio; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Pagination: The booklet also has an original printed pagination sequence.
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- English in Latin script View the complete information for this record
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