'British interests on the coast of Arabia, Koweit, Bahrein and El Katr' [1r] (1/4)
The record is made up of 2 folios. It was created in 30 Jan 1905. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
British Interests on the Coast of Arabia, Koweit,
Bahrein, and El Katr.
The following extract from a letter of the 5tli January 1903, from the
Government of India to tlie ^ra\al Cornmander-in-Cliiet, gives a sue met
statement of the political geography of the Arabian coast of the Persian
Gulf. The places named are marked in the attached copy of Curzon's map.
" From Koweit to Katif town Ottoman rule has long been recognised, and,
in fact, though this has never been explicitly admitted, it would he
difficult to dispute Turkish claims to exercise jurisdiction as far as,
and inclusive of, Ojair. South of this place, and on the El Katr
peninsula, His Majesty's Gevernment have declined to recognise
Turkish sovereignty, though the Turks actually have a garrison at
El Bidaa . xi m • i
tt and inclusive of Odeid eastward, the coast belongs to the i ik i tl
Chiefs as far as Ras-el-Kheima. Thence, starting from Rams south
of Tibba, round the Musandim promontory, to Dihba, the country is
in the occupation of the Shihooh tribe. Claims ha\e been put loiwaid
bv the Sultan of Muscat to exercise jurisdiction over this tract, but it
has been held that his ascendancy is so indeterminate that it need not
" From Dibba southward to Khor Kalba, the Batineh coast is regarded as
part of the territory of the Sheikh of Shargah. The local Sheikhs
have from time to time invoked the assistance of the Sultan oi Muscat,
but the Government of India have decided that no interference by
Muscat can be admitted; that this portion of the coast is subject to
the maritime truce; and that the Sheikh in power is bound by the
terms of the agreements which have from time to time been concluded
with the Trueial Chiefs."
The British Government has treaties with the Sheikhs of Koweit and
Bahrein, and with the Trucial Chiefs mentioned in the Government of
India's letter quoted above.
The Koweit Treaty (23rd January 1891)) provide? that the Sheikh shall
not receive the Agent or representative of any Foreign Power without the
consent of the British Government, and shall not ^scl', loa^e, moitgagt 1 , oi
rlM give for occupation/any portion of his territory to any Foreign Power or the
subject of a y Foreign Power. Simultaneously with the signing of the
Treaty, the Resident wrote to the Sheikh promising him the good offices of
the British Government, and impressing on him a> a condition of the Agree
ment that it should be kept secret and not divulged without our consent.
The Treaty was accompanied w T itli a gift of lis. 15.000.
The treaties with Bahrein and the Trucial Chiefs are on the same lines;
but provide not only that the Chief shall receive no representative of any
Foreign Power, but that he shall not enter into any agreement or hold any
correspondence with any loreign Power. And, as regards tiie cession of
territory, these treaties provide that the Chief will not sell, lease, &c., any
territory except to the British Government. These treaties contain no
promise of protection or good offices.
It may be added that we have a treaty w r ith Muscat (of 1891) by which
the Sultan agrees not to cede, sell, mortgage. &c., any portion of his
territory save to the British Government, and that along the southern coast
of Arabia, west of Dhofar, where Muscat territory ends, we have agreements
with the Sheikhs, along the coast as far as Aden and the lied Sea, binding
them not to hold correspondence or enter into agreements with Foreign
Powers. This stipulation in the majority of cases is accompanied by one
precluding the Chief from parting with territory.
Koweit has no immediate and direct relation with the question of the
policy to be pursued on Ihe coast south of Ojair where Turkish sovereignty
S. S. 4.
About this item
Richmond Thackeray Willoughby Ritchie, British Interests on the Coast of Arabia, Koweit, Bahrein, and El Katr (Government of India, 1905).
This document consists of an analysis of British interests on the coast of Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar. It was written by Richmond Thackeray Willoughby Ritchie and published in 1905. It is composed of four sections dealing with the Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar.
Arabian coast. This cites a letter, 5th January 1903, from the Government of India to the Naval Commander-in-Chief, noting it gives a concise overview of 'the political geography of the Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ': the claims to rule by the Ottomans, Trucial Chiefs and the Sultan of Muscat. It then reviews key treaties with the Sheikhs of Kuwait (23rd January, 1899) , Bahrain, Trucial Chiefs, the 1891 treaty with Muscat, and the agreements with Shaikhs down the coast to Aden.
Kuwait. This section discusses two issues with the Turks at Kuwait. Firstly, the status of the British Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Major Stuart George Knox and his instructions concerning the conflicts and dynamics between Ibn Saud, Ibn Rashid and the Turks. The second issue concerns rights over Bubian Island.
Bahrain. This section discusses British non-recognition of Turkish authority in Bahrain and measures to assert British authority there, referring to reports by Sir Nicholas Roderick O'Conor.
Qatar. This section discusses Turkish influence in Qatar and the reasons why the conclusions of a treaty with the the ruling Al Thani shaikh by the Government of India would be desirable.
- Extent and format
- 2 folios
The document consists four sections: Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar.
- Physical characteristics
The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio, on number 1, and ends on the last folio, on number 2.
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