‘File 5/188 I, 189 I Expenses incurred as a result of slaves taking refuge in consulates and agencies; manumission of slaves and general treatment of slave trade cases’ [76v] (165/316)
The record is made up of One volume (149 folios). It was created in 31 Mar 1910-9 Jun 1939. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
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I '■■■ i
^jave either informs the Munshi A secretary or political assistant working in the British administration in the Gulf, often also providing linguistic interpretation. that the slave may be freed, when he finds him
to of recent importation or of date subsequent to the Treaty of 1873, or in
doubtful cases, i.e., when the date of the slave's importation cannot be clearly
ascertained. His Highness requests that the slave maybe detained for from 10 to
Ip.days pending further investigation or the arrival of his master.
In the now rare cases of slaves imported before 1873 claiming freedom
the Sultan is not asked to agree to their manumission unless crueltv or
inhuman treatment is proved, in which case freedom is given with the consent
^ the Sultan ; otherwise when slaves not entitled to freedom under the treaty
appear to be well fed and clothed and in good condition, they are returned to
their masters by the Sultan, who causes the masters to sign a bond by which
they undertake to treat the slaves thus returned with kindness.
. In the event of British Indian subjects or subjects of Native States
taking retuge in the Maskat Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. from a state of pseudo slavery, their free
dom has been demanded, as of right, from His Highness and admitted bv him
as a matter ot course, on the principle that the reduction of such persons to a
state of slavery can under no circumstances be legal. Of this categorv the
most likely case to occur is that of indigent Baluchis from Kalat-Mekran.
IV.—T rucial Coast,
ai Agreement of 1847, re-affirmed in the case of the Chiefs of Sharffah and
Abu Dhabi in 1873 (Aitchison, volume XT'!, pages 178 and 18'i). ^
Certificates are granted by or on the specific authority of the Resident
^ fi"' ^ rep01 ^ h ' v ^ ]e Sftti ve Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. Agent, and after
j sideration ot the views oi the Shaikh concerned when such are put forward.
(i) Experience shows that there is a disposition to use the word " slave "
as a synonym for " negro " in correspondence. This should be avoided. There
is a large tree negro population in the Gulf and it does not at all follow that
^ " ls . a ne S ro h ® 18 necessarily a slave, nor is the converse the case
of o\her denomination? 6883 ' 1 " Ue8r0 - He may be a ^dividual
+i ,f ll" ^ a ' ]aVe ' ia . 3 serTefl his master for a long time, the probability is
that the cause of his desire for freedom is ot recent origin, and as it is very
more in bis ^ntereTtlnt ^" Can '. reall y 1 be repatriated in practice, it is often
vT ti.l Jl! . f at a ^conciliation be effected between master and slave
by the execution of an undertaking from the former to meet the slaved wishes
id some particular respect and treat him better
toasfL^the ;^™:v^^n' o be shouid be taken
divers who have ru/away to evad e the i S h ^ mea ^ P earl
H of the former cate g oi| they sbouM brdealt wUh as abZ indicatd 7 bu^f
fa^ wbc T er ^ bte to have th « ^
diving industry. 7 a LoUrt ' accordl nS to the usages of the pearl
In this connection reference is invited to the Trueial Coast Pearl Divers
Civi s „ v , 1 ' r ,, Agreement, 1879 (copy attached*).
Eesidency Agent'at Sha^mh'excect 6 ]^? 1 " 1 connection direct with the
Cases involving discussion^ should be iSd^o this matterS -
become' a British subject or nrotl^.Wn' s ' ave ''oes not properly speaking
by or through a British officer 0 Ti' 6 r( | aS ir 0 ' ''' 9 having been freed
nothing more than it pm'Urt7to he ' Briti ^ ^annmission Certificate is
5 n u pui ports to be. as now worded, and the bearer of one is
About this item
The first part of the volume contains correspondence to and from the Political Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. between 1912 and 1927, relating to the costs of providing refuge to slaves seeking manumission, incurred by the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Political Agencies and Consulates. Letters between the Treasury of the Government of India and the Political Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. discuss the annual budget allocated to the suppression of the slave trade, from which dietary expenses, as well as clothing and repatriation expenses, were taken. Amongst the particular issues discussed are the expenses related to increasing numbers of slaves originating from Baluchistan in 1923 as a result of that area’s famine, and the increasing costs of feeding slaves due to rising food costs near the end of the First World War.
The second part of the volume comprises correspondence sent between the Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. and Agencies/Consulates between 1910 and 1939 on how to deal with the manumission of slaves. The file includes guidelines for manumission (folios 56-58), created by Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Cox in his capacity as Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in 1912. Cox’s guidelines were distributed to the Gulf Agencies and Consulates. These guidelines responded to the ambiguities present at the time in determining whether manumission should be given: the date of an individual’s enslavement, where their owner resided, the nature of their servitude (domestic or otherwise). The guidelines outline the authorities (treaties and proclamations) governing the prohibition of the slave trade in the Gulf, and grounds and procedure for manumission. Procedure for manumission varies dependent on whether slaves have come from Persia, the Arab Coast (Kuwait, Bahrain, Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. , Muscat), and slaves from Persian territory under British protection. Queries over the status of slaves from Persia occupy a significant portion of the remainder of this part of file, due to official Persian policy regarding slaves having changed with Persia’s abolition of slavery in 1928. Also included is a revised set of manumission guidelines drawn up in 1938 (folios 127-29), intended to replace Cox’s earlier rules. These updated guidelines reflect the change in Persia (now Iran’s) policy towards slavery.
- Extent and format
- One volume (149 folios)
The volume consists of two previously separate subject files that were bound together at a later date. Each retains its own chronological sequence, running from earliest correspondence and front, to latest and rear, with office notes retained at the rear of second file.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: Volume is foliated from the front cover to last folio with a small number in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . Blank folios have not been foliated.
- Written in
- English in Latin script View the complete information for this record
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