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‘Persian Gulf Gazetteer. Part 1. Historical and political materials. Precis of Turkish expansion on the Arab littoral of the Persian Gulf and Hasa [Al-Hasa] and Katif [Al-Qaṭīf] affairs.’ [‎57] (69/160)

The record is made up of 1 volume (80 folios). It was created in 1904. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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57
213. Mahomed-bin-Abdul Wahab, who had transFerred his residence from
Bidaa to Ghareyah, proceeded on a visit to Hasa, whence he returned in May,
via Ojair, accompanied by a body of about 50 Turkish gendarmes, of whom 20
were said to be for the protection of Ghareyah and the rest for the relief of
the garrison of Bidaa. It was reported that the Mutassaritf of Hasa had pro
claimed Ghareyah to be Turkish territory. Subsequently the commander of
the Turkish gun-boat Zohaff landed at Ghareyah, and made notes of the leading
inhabitants, etc.
214. Sheikh Jasim greatly resented the position assumed by Mahomed-
bin-Abdul Wahab, with the aid and support of the Turks, of Governor of
Ghareyah, and threatened to withdraw from Bidaa with his adherents and to
commence hostilities against Mahomed-bin-Abdul "VYahab.
215. In July it was reported that Mahomed-bia-Abdul Wahab had visited
Sheikh Jasim at Bidaa, and that terms of reconciliation were arranged between
them with the cognisance of the Turkish commander. The Turkish corvette
Zohaff fired a salute of ^1 guns in honour of the occassion, but the terms agreed
on were kept secret.
216. Several robberies took place on boats of Bahrein in the waters of
Katif, the Turkish officials showing their usual apathy and indifference. Re
ports of these incidents were forwarded, as usual, to the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency.
in Turkish Arabia.
217. Mahomed -bin-Abdul Wahab, who had continued to keep up an active
correspondence with the Turkish officials of Haaa and Turkish Arabia, visited
Bahrein in winter. He was there met by the Jehrain from Ghareyah, about
'250 in number, and it was arranged that these people should settle at Darin
in the Katif District, where Mahomed-bin-Abdul Wahab would join them
later and bscome their leader. He obtained permission of the Governor of
Hasa for this settlement. Probably, indeed, it had been pre-concerted for some
time By this migration Ghareyah had become nearly depopulated, whilst
Darin appeared on the fair way to becoming a village of some importance.
218. Saleh Pasha was succeeded by
Bifat Pasha (1887-89). Pasha in 1877.
219. In January 1889 Kifat Beg, Mutassarif of Hasa was dismissed from
service. There had been for some time
External a., February 1889, Nos. 384 335- . much unpleasantness between him and
the military commandant, partly owing to some disagreement in connection
with the estate of the deceased Ahmed-bin Mahomed; which the civil authori
ties wished to take possession of, while the military opposed this intention. It-
was even rumoured that the Mutassarif was assaulted and ill-treated by the
Commandant, but this rumour was apparently unfounded.
220. The successor of Eifat Beg was AUf Fasha. He dismissed the
Akif Pasha, (i889 -oi). Kaimakam of Katif, and proceeded to
External a., September 1889, Nos. 250-251. investigate into the recent robberies and
piracies. He entertain some grand schemes for extending the influence of the
Turkish Government in Katif and Katar One of his proposals was to lay a
telegraphic line between Bariah and Katif, and make the people of Hasa and
Katif to pay the cost of tbe undertaking. He also proposed to establish
custom houses at Darin and Katar. This project was at first abandoned,
as it was apprehended that in carrying it out, they would only drive the
Bedouins from the country to the interior or to Bahrein.
221. Akif Pasha advocated the organization of a dromedory mounted police
to replace the existing mounted police,
a 8 .! J»^iarJ C i89i, Nos. 93-94. with which force it was found impos
sible to cope with the recalcitrant Bedouins and the work of escorting
caravans from Hasa to Ojair. The scheme was to establish several mili-
tarv posts in the town along the coast for the preservation of order.
The Turkish Government sanctioned the establishment of seventeen posts.
[C967rD] Q

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Content

Part 1 of a Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. gazetteer of historical and political materials, a précis of Turkish expansion on the Arab littoral of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , and Hasa [Al-Hasa] and Katif [Al-Qaṭīf] affairs. The précis was prepared by Jerome Antony Saldanha, whose preface (under which his surname is erroneously spelt Saldana) is dated 25 November 1904, and published by the Government of India Foreign Deptartment, Simla, India.

The preface is an historical outline of the struggle for political dominance in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , including Portuguese, British, Wahabi [Wahhābī] and Turkish expansion. The chapters (titles shown in italics) deal with the subject in an roughly chronological fashion:

1. Early history of Hasa and Katif , including: references to the area in Arabic writing; the first known Arab colonists; and early references to the area in British (East India Company) records;

2. Conquest of Hasa by the Wahabis and Turkish expeditions into Nejd [Najd] and Hasa, and their results 1800-1865 , including: conquest of the area by the Wahabis; Turkish expeditions to the area, 1811-19 and 1836-40; Amir Feysal’s [Fayṣal ibn Turki Āl Sa‘ūd] nominal dependence on Turkey, 1855; troubles in Katif, 1859-62; Turkish protest against British proceedings at Damaum [Dammām], 1862; the British war against Amir Feysal, 1865-66; obsolete title of award of Arabia by an Abbasid caliph to the Ottoman Porte; Ottoman ambitions in Arabia (Holy Ottoman Empire);

3. Turkish expedition to Nejd and Hasa, 1871-72 , including: origins of the expedition; intelligence from the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. , Colonel Lewis Pelly; British policy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , and effects of the Turkish expedition on that policy; Turkish assurances to Britain, communicated to Bahrain (spelt Bahrein throughout) by Pelly; Turkish promise of non-interference with the rulers of the Trucial coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. ; narrative of the events leading up to and including the landing of the expeditionary force in Nejd; Turkish designs on Katar [Qatar], and their hoisting of the Turkish flag at Budaa [Al-Bidda]; Turkish naval activity in the Gulf, and Britain’s naval response; murder of a suspected Turkish messenger at Bahrain; reasons for the non-interference of the British Government in operations on land; further narrative of the expedition and affairs in Nejd; evidence of Turkish designs on Bahrain; Turkish assurances; relations between Turkey and Abuthabi [Abu Dhabi]; close of the Turkish expedition;

4. Internal affairs of Hasa and Katif, 1872-1904 , including: administration and internal organisation; and a list of governors at Hasa, including events of significance occurring during their rule;

5. Survey of the Katif coast, 1873-74 , including: British intentions and permission gained from the Ottoman Porte; complaints of British survey officers landing on the Nejd coast; written permission to land to undertake surveying.

6. Increase of Turkish military and naval forces in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , and Turkish policy , including: a memorandum by Captain T Doughty on the state of affairs in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ;

7. (1) Trade Relations of Hindu and other traders of Bahrain with Katif, and their disabilities , and (2) Proposal appointment of a consular officer at Katif ;

8. Piracies , including: piracies in Katif and Bahrain waters, 1878; ; revolt in Hasa and piracies in Katif and Bahrain waters, 1878-81; Turkish responsibilities and jurisdiction for the purpose of suppressing piracies in Katif waters, 1878-81; piracies in Katif and Bahrain waters in 1883; piracies in Katif and Bahrain waters in 1886; piracies in 1887-88; piracies in 1891-92; piracies in 1899-1900; piracies in 1902 and the proposal of the Chief of Bahrain to maintain an armed dhow for the pursuit of pirates, 1902-03;

9. Murder of Sheikh Selman-bin-Diaij-el-Khalifa [Shaikh Salman bin Diaj Āl Khalīfah] , a cousin of the Chief of Bahrain and his party about 40 miles south of Katif. Question of satisfaction and compensation for it ;

10. Turkish designs on Oman and the rest of the East Arabian Littoral, 1888-1899 ;

11. Summary of British declarations against Turkish encroachments in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and of the Porte’s assurances, 1871-1904 .

The cover of volume, on which the title is printed, also has a number of different pencil and pen annotations, marking former external references or numbering systems (‘P.2557/29’, ‘No.5’, ‘C238’).

Extent and format
1 volume (80 folios)
Arrangement

The volume is arranged into eleven chapters, preceded by a preface. Each chapter is organised by subheadings, and its paragraphs numbered. The paragraph numbers are continuous throughout the whole volume, beginning on 1 at the start of the first chapter, and ending on 553/553A at the end of the eleventh chapter. A contents page at the front of the volume (ff.4-5) lists the chapters by their headings and subheadings, with each referring to paragraph, rather than page, numbers.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The foliation sequence commences at the front cover, and terminates at the inside back cover; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right hand corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: The volume also contains an original printed pagination sequence, with page numbers located top and centre of each page.

Written in
English in Latin script
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‘Persian Gulf Gazetteer. Part 1. Historical and political materials. Precis of Turkish expansion on the Arab littoral of the Persian Gulf and Hasa [Al-Hasa] and Katif [Al-Qaṭīf] affairs.’ [‎57] (69/160), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C238, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023514031.0x000047> [accessed 15 November 2018]

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