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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2214] (731/1262)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (1165 pages). It was created in 1915. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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Eocene and
Limestones containing members of the characteristic family of the
Hippuriticlae ; with some intei bedded shales, are widely diffused througbut
Persia. A small inlier is found at Khamir, surrounded by younger rocks;
and it is well developed on the Arabian coast to the south-east of Masqat,
where rocks whose fossils indicate an Upper Cretaceous age overlie tlie
older rocks unconformably.
Occupying the whole of the eastern or larger portion of the
Gulf proper are series of lavas and tuffs with some interbedded sandstones
and shales. Associated with these are vast beds of rock-salt and gypsum,
deeply tinged with red from the presence of red iron oxide (red ochre),
produced by the decomposition of haematite or specular iron ore ; which
is abundantly found throughout the formation. Red ochre exists in
Horaiuz, Bu Musa aod some other places in large deposits/which have
been profitably worked. Iron pyrites, sulphur, dolomite and anhydrite
are found also to some extent in the deposit. The underground solution
of the salt and the consequent falling in of the surface have given the
ground occupied by the Hormuz series a singularly craggy aspect; and
their almost entire barrenness increases the peculiarity of their appearance.
The beds have been greatly disturbed and are almost always found to dip
at high angles. At Khamir their connection with the Hippuritic
limestone clearly proves that their age is not older than Upper Cretaceous;
and as the Eocene rocks which overlie them are probably not older than
Middle Eocene, a date between these two periods may be assigned to them.
They were probably formed in shallow water in a slowly subsiding area.
Rocks of this age are distributed in three distinct areas in the Gulf
1. Persia. Nummulitic limestone extends over great areas in the
interior of Persia and Baluchistan, overlying the Cretaceous
rocks unconformably. Sandstones, with interbedded limestones
of an Upper Eocene age, form the big range running
behind Bandar 'Abbas and approaching the sea at Khamif'
Southern Persia probably does not contain any representativ
of the Lower Eocene limestones of Baluchistan and Smd
but a more or less uninterrupted deposition seems to w
continued into Oligocene or even into Lower M iocene times
The newest be^s seen are limestones, containing
in the Bakhtiyari series.
2 J Oman, Sandy limestone with a basal conglomerate, belonging to
the Upper Eocene^ rests on all the older beds.
3. Bahrain. This area was separated from the preceding two aieas
by a land barrier consisting of the older rocks of ; Oman an
of the once continuous land formed by the Hormuz series,
which the Gulf islands and a few places on the mainlan
now the sole surviving remnants. The rocks are Imi 08 011 !
often very argillaceous and characterized by the large
of gypsum and siliceous matter scattered through them,
latter as flint, chert, or quartz geodes. Nummulites
echinoidsare numerous in some beds. The Bahrain
almost certainly occupies a large area in the interior
Arabia, and probably is a representative of the
Eocene, with which it shows strong fossil affinities.

About this item


This volume is Volume I, Part II (Historical) of the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , ’Omān and Central Arabia (Government of India: 1915), compiled by John Gordon Lorimer and completed for press by Captain L Birdwood.

Part II contains an 'Introduction' (pages i-iii) written by Birdwood in Simla, dated 10 October 1914, 'Table of Chapters, Annexures, Appendices and Genealogical Tables' (pags v-viii), and 'Detailed Table of Contents' (ix-cxxx). These are also found in Volume I, Part IA of the Gazetteer (IOR/L/PS/20/C91/1).

Part II consists of three chapters:

  • 'Chapter X. History of ’Arabistān' (pages 1625-1775);
  • 'Chapter XI. History of the Persian Coast and Islands' (pages 1776-2149);
  • 'Chapter XII. History of Persian Makrān' (pages 2150-2203).

The chapters are followed by nineteen appendices:

Extent and format
1 volume (1165 pages)

Volume I, Part II is arranged into chapters that are sub-divided into numbered periods covering, for example, the reign of a ruler or regime of a Viceroy, or are arbitrarily based on outstanding land-marks in the history of the region. Each period has been sub-divided into subject headings, each of which has been lettered. The appendices are sub-divided into lettered subject headings and also contain numbered annexures, as well as charts. Both the chapters and appendices have further subject headings that appear in the right and left margins of the page. Footnotes appear occasionally througout the volume at the bottom of the page which provide further details and references. A 'Detailed Table of Contents' for Part II and the Appendices is on pages cii-cxxx.

Physical characteristics

The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 879, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 1503.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2214] (731/1262), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 6 December 2023]

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