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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2216] (733/1262)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (1165 pages). It was created in 1915. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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Geological history of the Gulf.
In the present state of our knowledge of this area it is impossible to
trace the sequence of events prior to the great stresses wliicli folded in
the serpentinous basic igneous rocks of Masqat and ; Oman amongst the
Carho-Triassic beds. These movements probably occurred at the begin
ning of the Cretaceous. We may therefore date from this period tlie
elevation of the mountain ranges of ^Oman. In the ocean-bed whose
southern limit was defined by these upheaved older rocks were deposited
the Upper Cretaceous beds of Hippuritic Limestone which cover large
areas in Persia. Following closely upon these ; and perhaps extending
into the Eocene period^ occurred the Hormuz series of volcanic flows,
accompanied by the formation of thick beds of salt and gypsum. It is
not unlikely that shallow-water conditions prevailed here during part of
this epoch, and some of the lavas and tuffs of the Hormuz series were
probably formed beneath the water After this period o£ volcanic
activity occurred a great depression of most of Southern Persia, Within
this depression the Eocene rocks were deposited. This was accompanied
by an upheaval of the volcanic area of the Hormuz rocks into dry land,
which formed a barrier running in an approximately north-west and
south-east direction^ separating the Eocene sea of Persia from that of
Bahrain. It seems not unlikely that this land barrier continued through
the Upper Eocene^ Oligocene and Miocene, This appears to have been a
tranquil period^ the distribution of land and sea remaining almost
unaltered except as demanded by the slight unconformities before the
deposition of the Fars series and the Bakhtiyarx grits. In early Pliocene
times occurred the world-wide movements which produced amongs
others the present mountain ranges of Persia. The actual Persian Guli
area seems to have been less disturbed than the Persian plateau ; witness
the^ almost horizontal strata of theF.ars series in Hanjam^ and the J
rolling Eocene rocks of ^Oman and Bahrain. It is on the whole hk 6 )
that sub-aerial denudation continued over this area^ and that the carving
out of the topographical features to which the floor of the ^ ers ^
Gulf and the Gulf of ; Oman owe their present contour was conolu e
dwing Pliocene times. The limit of this land was doubtless Q® 61
mined by the steep submarine cliff which runs along the Makran coast
and then, cutting across the Gulf of 'Oman, runs parallel to the Ara
coast. This feature may have been the result of a fault, but the w'®
inclines to the idea that it was produced by the denudation of agradualij
rising area during Pliocene and possibly during Pleistocene times- j®
a widespread submergence took place, which buried fathoms deep
steep mountain valleys, river systems and Bea cliffs which were
carved out for so many ages previously. To movements of this nature "
we owe the deeply-cut inlets of Musandam and the islands dotting ^
Gulf, which are merely isolated peaks of the Hormuz volcanic series F 8
rising above the surface of the water. The latest movement to which W
Gulf has been, or is now being, subjected is one of gradual elevation,
which traces are found in recent littoral concretes, now as much as ^

About this item


This volume is Volume I, Part II (Historical) of the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , ’Omān and Central Arabia (Government of India: 1915), compiled by John Gordon Lorimer and completed for press by Captain L Birdwood.

Part II contains an 'Introduction' (pages i-iii) written by Birdwood in Simla, dated 10 October 1914, 'Table of Chapters, Annexures, Appendices and Genealogical Tables' (pags v-viii), and 'Detailed Table of Contents' (ix-cxxx). These are also found in Volume I, Part IA of the Gazetteer (IOR/L/PS/20/C91/1).

Part II consists of three chapters:

  • 'Chapter X. History of ’Arabistān' (pages 1625-1775);
  • 'Chapter XI. History of the Persian Coast and Islands' (pages 1776-2149);
  • 'Chapter XII. History of Persian Makrān' (pages 2150-2203).

The chapters are followed by nineteen appendices:

Extent and format
1 volume (1165 pages)

Volume I, Part II is arranged into chapters that are sub-divided into numbered periods covering, for example, the reign of a ruler or regime of a Viceroy, or are arbitrarily based on outstanding land-marks in the history of the region. Each period has been sub-divided into subject headings, each of which has been lettered. The appendices are sub-divided into lettered subject headings and also contain numbered annexures, as well as charts. Both the chapters and appendices have further subject headings that appear in the right and left margins of the page. Footnotes appear occasionally througout the volume at the bottom of the page which provide further details and references. A 'Detailed Table of Contents' for Part II and the Appendices is on pages cii-cxxx.

Physical characteristics

The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 879, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 1503.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2216] (733/1262), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 1 December 2023]

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