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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2224] (741/1262)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (1165 pages). It was created in 1915. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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this rule be correct; the majority of the bivalves brought to the
by divers in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. are over two years of age, and a large
number are over three years.
The movements of the oyster are entirely uncertain, defying forecast J
thus in the season of 1876 nearly every pearl boat in the Gulf was riding
in the vicinity of the Shah Alum shoal and a magnificent haul of oysters
was obtained in a very restricted area, while in the following year the same
locality—contrary to the expectations of the divers—proved almost barren.
It is known that in the G ulf the oysters sometimes suffer severely from
submarine disturbances, accompanied by the emission of gases and bitu
minous products; this was notably the case in 1900, when the sea in
places on the Arab banks was reddish and turbid and the oysters on some
of the beds were found to be dead or diseased and produced no pearls.
The notion that the Arabs feed the oyster beds at certain seasons of
the year is erroneous; nor is the oyster itself often eaten, except by the
natives of Trucial ^Oman.
Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Pearls.
The classical word for a pearl in Arabic is Lulu^J^J (plural, Laali ^
and in Persian Marwarid ; but the term in common use all over
the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. is Qumashah (plural, Qumash )•
byssus is formed of material secreted by a special gland and the foot js used to bung
each strand, as it is moulded or cast, into contact with the point selected oi
fixation. The byssus hardens on contact with sea water, and its colour cMBg 0 ®
within 48 hours from a pale almost transparent yellow to an opaqne and
bronze-green. The animal can at any time let go the inner end of_ the
where the strands are fused into one, and it frequently does so when it is unab e
find a place with which it is thoroughly satisfied ; a specimen under observation^
Galle changed its position 7 times and formed a bjssus no less than 8 times i ^
fortnight, the byssus on one occasion consisting of 9 strands. The adult oys e ^
very sensitive to light and shade, and will close up even in a depth of 9 tatncms
consequence of a shadow passing over the surface of the sea ; its movemen
from fear of predaceous animals, are mostly performed during the hours oi dai >
and are discontinued if an artificial light is brought to bear.
The animal can release itself from a covering of sand not exceeding inC V
but, if buried to a depth of 3 inches, it is helpless and dies. The shifting ^
caused by monsoon or storm currents, is undoubtedly the cause of many (iisas raI]Ce
oyster colonies, and it was probably an important factor in the total msappe ^
from the Periya Paar in Ceylon, between March and November 1902, of a num
young oysters computed at no less than a hundred thousand millions. ^ ^
The principal enemies of the oyster are voracious fishes, chiefly ia J® R ^ r w jtli
fishes, the former of which can apparently crush the shell of the adult
their teeth ; boring gastropod mollusca ; boring sponges, which sometimes ^ ^ ;
the shell of the adult oyster so rendering it an easier prey for fish; boring
starfishes; lamellibranch mollusca, which smother the animal; crabs ana
fishes ; and, finally, associated animals such as corals, barnacles and Bpoug. es » ^
adbere to the shell and, mechanically or by competition for food, cause in3 u J
even death.
Other causes of mortality among oysters are overcrowding, which i^^Sj the
nutrition and growth j also, possibly, the opposite evil of over -fishing by wn ^
stock left for breeding may be too greatly reduced. Diseases due to paras"
probably epidemic and assisted by overcrowding, also claim many yictim 8 '

About this item


This volume is Volume I, Part II (Historical) of the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , ’Omān and Central Arabia (Government of India: 1915), compiled by John Gordon Lorimer and completed for press by Captain L Birdwood.

Part II contains an 'Introduction' (pages i-iii) written by Birdwood in Simla, dated 10 October 1914, 'Table of Chapters, Annexures, Appendices and Genealogical Tables' (pags v-viii), and 'Detailed Table of Contents' (ix-cxxx). These are also found in Volume I, Part IA of the Gazetteer (IOR/L/PS/20/C91/1).

Part II consists of three chapters:

  • 'Chapter X. History of ’Arabistān' (pages 1625-1775);
  • 'Chapter XI. History of the Persian Coast and Islands' (pages 1776-2149);
  • 'Chapter XII. History of Persian Makrān' (pages 2150-2203).

The chapters are followed by nineteen appendices:

Extent and format
1 volume (1165 pages)

Volume I, Part II is arranged into chapters that are sub-divided into numbered periods covering, for example, the reign of a ruler or regime of a Viceroy, or are arbitrarily based on outstanding land-marks in the history of the region. Each period has been sub-divided into subject headings, each of which has been lettered. The appendices are sub-divided into lettered subject headings and also contain numbered annexures, as well as charts. Both the chapters and appendices have further subject headings that appear in the right and left margins of the page. Footnotes appear occasionally througout the volume at the bottom of the page which provide further details and references. A 'Detailed Table of Contents' for Part II and the Appendices is on pages cii-cxxx.

Physical characteristics

The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 879, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 1503.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2224] (741/1262), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 9 December 2023]

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