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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2233] (750/1262)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (1165 pages). It was created in 1915. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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. diver receiving 3 shares, each Saib or hauler 2, and each Uadhrf or
01 1 hand 1 ; the Walaid or apprentice is not entitled to a share. The
rkhuda besides commanding the boat, may also own her, and may
1 Iself take part in the work of diving : in this case he will be
remunerated not only as a Nakhuda, but also as an owner and a diver m
Pinancial regulations of the pearl fishery on the Arabian side.
Pearling operations having been carried on in the past very largely
with borrowed capital and being still to axonsiderable extent so financed,
it is not surprising to find that the industry is governed by stringent
customs as to debt, which have the force of law and are steadily enforced
by local tribunals.
To make the situation intelligible it should be explained that many Prevalence of
Nakhudas, especially those who are not owners of boats, owe more than debt,
they can pay to their Musaqqams on account of the expenses of fitting out
and provisioning their vessels and of retaining the services of capable divers
by them money advances ; also that even those Nakhudas who are
Mi A or free from debt are often in a precarious position, inasmuch
as they are responsible for the debts due from their divers to Nakhudas by
whom the divers may have been previously employed. In a similar way,
and even more generally, the divers are indebted to their IS akhudas for
advances, and, being an extravagant class, the amounts which they have
borrowed are often large and in some cases _ reach ^ so high a figure as
Rs. 3,000 a diver ; yet, in the stress of competition which now prevails, the
^akhudas dare not refuse advances to their divers, even in the off-season,
in case they should desert them and take service elsewhere. I* view ot
their own financial responsibilities and of the probability that the w ole
deht due by a diver may be lost in event of his death, Nakhudas are
extremely careful in the choice of their Ghasah. It is evident that,
under such a system of finance and in such a society as have been
described, the rights of lenders can only be safeguarded by rules ot an
exceedingly drastic character.
The Nakhuda, as we have already stated, is obliged, in certain Mu^qams
circumstances, to transfer the whole of the season s take to his Musaqqam
at a rate equal to about four-fifths of its market value; should e
disregard this obligation and dispose of his pearls to any other person,
the purchaser becomes liable to the Musaqqam for the amoun o e
Nakhuda's debts, even if they exceed the value of the pearls which e
has bought. The M usaqqam, on the other hand, has the nght to abroga e
his connection with the N akhuda at any time, if he tin s i o is
interest to do so; and, should the Nakhuda, when this occurs be unable to
pay his debts, the Musaqqam may insist on the pie of the Nak uda s
boat, if he owns one, after which the divers belonging to the boat may
be engaged by new masters, on payment to the insolvent Nakhuda ot t le
debts which stand against their names in his books : the house and
other property of the Nakhuda, however, are exempt from seizure, unless
% ^

About this item


This volume is Volume I, Part II (Historical) of the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , ’Omān and Central Arabia (Government of India: 1915), compiled by John Gordon Lorimer and completed for press by Captain L Birdwood.

Part II contains an 'Introduction' (pages i-iii) written by Birdwood in Simla, dated 10 October 1914, 'Table of Chapters, Annexures, Appendices and Genealogical Tables' (pags v-viii), and 'Detailed Table of Contents' (ix-cxxx). These are also found in Volume I, Part IA of the Gazetteer (IOR/L/PS/20/C91/1).

Part II consists of three chapters:

  • 'Chapter X. History of ’Arabistān' (pages 1625-1775);
  • 'Chapter XI. History of the Persian Coast and Islands' (pages 1776-2149);
  • 'Chapter XII. History of Persian Makrān' (pages 2150-2203).

The chapters are followed by nineteen appendices:

Extent and format
1 volume (1165 pages)

Volume I, Part II is arranged into chapters that are sub-divided into numbered periods covering, for example, the reign of a ruler or regime of a Viceroy, or are arbitrarily based on outstanding land-marks in the history of the region. Each period has been sub-divided into subject headings, each of which has been lettered. The appendices are sub-divided into lettered subject headings and also contain numbered annexures, as well as charts. Both the chapters and appendices have further subject headings that appear in the right and left margins of the page. Footnotes appear occasionally througout the volume at the bottom of the page which provide further details and references. A 'Detailed Table of Contents' for Part II and the Appendices is on pages cii-cxxx.

Physical characteristics

The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 879, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 1503.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2233] (750/1262), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 9 December 2023]

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