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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2243] (760/1262)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (1165 pages). It was created in 1915. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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, cin . jts provisions^—the British Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian
f if has been the final arbiter in all disputes, including pearl fishing
^utes between the Shaikhdoms of Trucial 'Oman; and maritime
rity' to the great benefit of the pearl fisheries, has been fully main-
f'ned In earlier days, when feuds were carried on without restriction
! time or place, the pearl banks were naturally the scene of frequent
Vbats; and weak fleets of which the owners were unable to come to
c understanding with their enemies were often, to the financial injury
a r ruin of the ports to which they belonged, practically excluded, during
0 geagon or more, from taking a share in the pearling operations. Under
British protection the rights and safety of all are now perfectly secured,
and breach of the peace at sea, on the pearl banks as elsewhere, is
Dromptly and adequately punished : the latest instance occurred in 1900,
when a fine of Rs. 1,500 was inflicted on the Al Bu ; Ali fleet for having
dared to attack the boats of 'Amamarah pearl fishers while both were
prosecuting their operations off the coast of Qatar.
In 1897 an important agreement, having special reference to the
circumstances of the pearl industry, was^ concluded by all the Shaikhs of
Trucial 'Oman at the instance of the British authorities ; it provided for
the mutual surrender by the Shaikhs of fraudulent absconders, especially
pearl divers and sailors, from one jurisdiction to another. Each Shaikh
responsible under this agreement for the debts of runaways whom
illiistete |
at6 ?i
he might fail to hand over to their lawful rulers, as well as^ to a fine of
}50 in the case of each fugitive; and he was made liable, in the event
of his allowing an absconder to proceed to the pearl banks in pursuance
of his vocation, to a fine of | 100. If the facts were disputed the case
was to be tried by a council or Majlis, whose decision, subject to confirma
tion by the British Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. , should be final. The results of
this agreement in practice have been beneficial; and it is obvious, in
view of the peculiar financial conditions governing the fishery, that the
existence of some such understanding is essential to the continuance of
the industry on its present basis, which is largely one of credit.
A case important to Arab rulers was one which arose in 1899
through the finding by a native of Kumzar, a subject of the Sultan of
'Oman, of an extremely valuable pearl, estimated, it is said, at about
8;500 Bombay Chaus; the question was of the share, if any, in the
proceeds of the sale to which the Sultan, as sovereign of the finder, was
entitled. The pearl was originally sold by the finders for $2,000 to
subjectsof the Shaikh of Sharjah ; and, after coming into the posses
sion of the latter, it was sent to Bombay, where it was valued at
k 4 ; 00,000, and subsequently to London. The finders then claimed that
tlie sale by them should be invalidated under a principle of Shara' law ;
H in the end, they were apparently prevailed on to accept ^a sum
of about $8,000, less commission. Meanwhile the Sultan of 'Oman,
Wing heard of the case, had also demanded ^ cancellation of the sale;
tins he did partly to assist the finders, his subjects, but partly also with
a view to claiming a share in the proceeds. The matter was^ eventually
fettled in 1901 by a Majlis held in Trucial 'Oman, whose decision, given
in writing and approved by the Sheikh of Sharjah, awarded the Sultan
the net price that might be obtained by the owners. The pearl
a fter remaining unsold for some time in London, was brought back to
)ay and disposed of there for Rs. 1,00^000, and the share of the
151 a
to 8urrender
Kumz5r pearl
case, 1899-

About this item


This volume is Volume I, Part II (Historical) of the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , ’Omān and Central Arabia (Government of India: 1915), compiled by John Gordon Lorimer and completed for press by Captain L Birdwood.

Part II contains an 'Introduction' (pages i-iii) written by Birdwood in Simla, dated 10 October 1914, 'Table of Chapters, Annexures, Appendices and Genealogical Tables' (pags v-viii), and 'Detailed Table of Contents' (ix-cxxx). These are also found in Volume I, Part IA of the Gazetteer (IOR/L/PS/20/C91/1).

Part II consists of three chapters:

  • 'Chapter X. History of ’Arabistān' (pages 1625-1775);
  • 'Chapter XI. History of the Persian Coast and Islands' (pages 1776-2149);
  • 'Chapter XII. History of Persian Makrān' (pages 2150-2203).

The chapters are followed by nineteen appendices:

Extent and format
1 volume (1165 pages)

Volume I, Part II is arranged into chapters that are sub-divided into numbered periods covering, for example, the reign of a ruler or regime of a Viceroy, or are arbitrarily based on outstanding land-marks in the history of the region. Each period has been sub-divided into subject headings, each of which has been lettered. The appendices are sub-divided into lettered subject headings and also contain numbered annexures, as well as charts. Both the chapters and appendices have further subject headings that appear in the right and left margins of the page. Footnotes appear occasionally througout the volume at the bottom of the page which provide further details and references. A 'Detailed Table of Contents' for Part II and the Appendices is on pages cii-cxxx.

Physical characteristics

The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 879, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 1503.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2243] (760/1262), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 1 December 2023]

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