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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2353] (870/1262)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (1165 pages). It was created in 1915. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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at his capital Kufah, but also Mu 'awiyah at Damascus and 'Umr-foh 'All by
org ibn-al-^s at Cairo,—all of whom they regarded as disturbers o£ the an ^
peace of Islam. ^Umr escaped entirely unhurt; Mu^awiyah was wounded
but recovered; and the plot succeeded only in the case of ■'AH, whom
; Abdur Kahman-bin-Muljam cut down with a swoi v d in the great mosque
at Kufali. ''Ali^s wound, which was on the forepart of his head, was not
severe; but the sword with which it was inflicted had been poisoned,
and he expired a day or two after, at the age of 63.
; Ali left three sons, named Hasan, Husain and Muhassin. Of these Khalifate of
Hasan was elected by his fathers subjects to be their ruler; but he Hasan and
shrunk from a conflict with the superior forces of Mu'awiyah, who had hi^ ^hdioa-
not ceased to encroach on ■'Iraq; and by a treaty with the 'Omaiyid he ^ *
obtained, in consideration of his renouncing his claims to the Khalifate,
an amnesty for all his relations and a handsome pension for himself.
Under this arrangement Mu'awiyah took possession of Kufah in the
summer of 661. Hasan retired to Madinah, where he died eight or
nine years later, poisoned by his wife, it was said, at the instigation of
the ; Omaiyids.
Mir'awiyah remained in undisputed possessidn of the nominal Hngain's in-
Klialifate until his death in 680 ; but his son and successor Yazid had vasion of
immediately to cope with a movement headed by Husain, the second ^ rac l' 680 A.
son of ; Ali, encouraged by "'Abdullah, an ambitious son of Zubair,
whose devotion to his cause does not appear to have been altogether
sincere. Husain, not without hesitation, accepted an invitation from the
inhabitants of ''Iraq to become their ruler and sent his cousin Muslim-
bin- ; Aqil to prepare the way for him. Yazid, to meet the danger,
transferred the energetic ■'Obaid Ullah, son of his own uncle Ziyad,
from the government of Basrah to that of Kufah; and the capture and
execution of Muslim quickly followed. Meanwhile Husain had advanced
from Makkah to the borders of /Iraq; here he was met on the 1st of
Muharram by a troop of horse under one Hurr, who had orders to
conduct him to Kufah but did not do so ; and on the 8rd of Muharram
a body of 4,000 troops^ despatched by ■'Obaid Ullah from Kufah,
established themselves between the Euphrates and Husain's camp at
Karbala, cutting him off from the river. Negotiations ensued, which
lasted until the 9th; but no settlement could be reached, for ^Obaid
Ullah insisted on the unconditional surrender of Husain and his party,
and to this Husain would not agree. On the morning of Saturday the
10th of Muharram 61 A. H., corresponding to the 10th of October 680
A. D., Hurr, the leader first sent against Husain, deserted to his side;
and soon afterwards fighting, chiefly in the form of single combats,
began in front of Husain^s camp, which he had caused to be entrenched
during the night. The attacking force was commanded by Shimr. The
battle was prolonged into the afternoon; but in the end numbers pro
filed, and Husain was slaughtered with his entire armed following of
more than 70 persons*; among the slain were Husain s half-brotnei"
Abbas and Husain's son AH Akbar. The head of Husain was sent to
* The number of the Shubada or martyrs is given as 72, but tbe^ writer The lowest of the four classes into which East India Company civil servants were divided. A Writer’s duties originally consisted mostly of copying documents and book-keeping. has not
able to ascertain whether the chiefs (Husain, etc.) are included in this number.

About this item


This volume is Volume I, Part II (Historical) of the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , ’Omān and Central Arabia (Government of India: 1915), compiled by John Gordon Lorimer and completed for press by Captain L Birdwood.

Part II contains an 'Introduction' (pages i-iii) written by Birdwood in Simla, dated 10 October 1914, 'Table of Chapters, Annexures, Appendices and Genealogical Tables' (pags v-viii), and 'Detailed Table of Contents' (ix-cxxx). These are also found in Volume I, Part IA of the Gazetteer (IOR/L/PS/20/C91/1).

Part II consists of three chapters:

  • 'Chapter X. History of ’Arabistān' (pages 1625-1775);
  • 'Chapter XI. History of the Persian Coast and Islands' (pages 1776-2149);
  • 'Chapter XII. History of Persian Makrān' (pages 2150-2203).

The chapters are followed by nineteen appendices:

Extent and format
1 volume (1165 pages)

Volume I, Part II is arranged into chapters that are sub-divided into numbered periods covering, for example, the reign of a ruler or regime of a Viceroy, or are arbitrarily based on outstanding land-marks in the history of the region. Each period has been sub-divided into subject headings, each of which has been lettered. The appendices are sub-divided into lettered subject headings and also contain numbered annexures, as well as charts. Both the chapters and appendices have further subject headings that appear in the right and left margins of the page. Footnotes appear occasionally througout the volume at the bottom of the page which provide further details and references. A 'Detailed Table of Contents' for Part II and the Appendices is on pages cii-cxxx.

Physical characteristics

The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 879, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 1503.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2353] (870/1262), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 28 November 2023]

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