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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2401] (918/1262)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (1165 pages). It was created in 1915. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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Company for a financial guarantee on account of an ordinary land line of
telegraph which they proposed to construct at a cost of about £200,000
from Suwaidiyah, already mentioned, to Qurnah. Some negotiations
with the Turkish Government ensued, but the Porte were averse from
granting a concession to a commercial company; instead they gave assur
ances,—-which they had neither the means nor the intention of fulfilling—
that a line of the sort in question would be constructed by Turkey out
of her own resources.
Meanwhile work was in progress upon a rival route between Europe
and India. In 1859, Egypt being already in telegraphic communication
with Europe via Tripoli, Malta and Italy, a cable to India was laid by
way of the Ked Sea, which, starting from Suez, touched at Sawakin,
Aden, Hallamyah (an island of the KuriaMuria group) and Masqat, and
finally reached India at Cape Monze (Has Munazi) near Karachi. This
enterprise was undertaken by the Red Sea and India Telegraph Company
on a guarantee of 4^ per cent, from the British Government. The cable
was opened on the 1st of November 1859; but the Sawakin-Aden section
failed in February, and the Aden-Karachi section in May 1860 ; and the
whole enterprise was abandoned. The failure of the cable was due to the
insufficiency of the marine surveys by which its course was determined,
to its having been too tightly laid, and to technical faults in construction,
for the art of manufacturing and laying submarine cables was then still in
its infancy. One consequence of this fiasco was to deter investors from
the support of projects that involved sea cables of any considerable length;
and a further result was to concentrate general attention, for a time,
on land routes towards the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. which might contribute towards
establishing reliable communication with India. Extensive enquiries and
surveys followed with a view to the establishment of a Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. line.
and failure
of the first
lied Sea
Establishment of telegraphic communication between
Europe and Baghdad, 1857-1861.
In 1857 the Turkish Government, while maintaining their objections
to the construction of telegraphs in Turkish Arabia A term used by the British officials to describe the territory roughly corresponding to, but not coextensive with, modern-day Iraq under the control of the Ottoman Empire. by a foreign company,
consented that the work should be carried out by officers of the British
Government on the behalf and at the expense of the Porte; but only
upon a distinct understanding that the whole line in Turkish territory
should, when completed, be placed under the management of the Ottoman
Department of Telegraphs. In pursuance of this arrangement the servi
ces of Lieutenant-Colonel Biddulph, R.A., were lent to the Turkish Gov-
crnment; in August 1858 work between Baghdad and Scutari was com
menced under his orders, and by October 1859 some 325 miles of the line
Jad been completed. About this time ill-health and Turkish obstruction
brought about Colonel Biddulph-'s resignation ; but work on the line was
^ntinued by the remainder of the party, of whom a proportion were
retired non-commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery.
Anglo n

About this item


This volume is Volume I, Part II (Historical) of the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , ’Omān and Central Arabia (Government of India: 1915), compiled by John Gordon Lorimer and completed for press by Captain L Birdwood.

Part II contains an 'Introduction' (pages i-iii) written by Birdwood in Simla, dated 10 October 1914, 'Table of Chapters, Annexures, Appendices and Genealogical Tables' (pags v-viii), and 'Detailed Table of Contents' (ix-cxxx). These are also found in Volume I, Part IA of the Gazetteer (IOR/L/PS/20/C91/1).

Part II consists of three chapters:

  • 'Chapter X. History of ’Arabistān' (pages 1625-1775);
  • 'Chapter XI. History of the Persian Coast and Islands' (pages 1776-2149);
  • 'Chapter XII. History of Persian Makrān' (pages 2150-2203).

The chapters are followed by nineteen appendices:

Extent and format
1 volume (1165 pages)

Volume I, Part II is arranged into chapters that are sub-divided into numbered periods covering, for example, the reign of a ruler or regime of a Viceroy, or are arbitrarily based on outstanding land-marks in the history of the region. Each period has been sub-divided into subject headings, each of which has been lettered. The appendices are sub-divided into lettered subject headings and also contain numbered annexures, as well as charts. Both the chapters and appendices have further subject headings that appear in the right and left margins of the page. Footnotes appear occasionally througout the volume at the bottom of the page which provide further details and references. A 'Detailed Table of Contents' for Part II and the Appendices is on pages cii-cxxx.

Physical characteristics

The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 879, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 1503.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2401] (918/1262), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 4 December 2023]

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