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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2610] (1127/1262)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (1165 pages). It was created in 1915. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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Other econo
mic reforms,
by the
In 1906-1907, in consequence of tlie political troubles whicli agitated
Persia during the year, the prestige and authority of the customs
suffered, and the receipts for the first six months were less by 69,000
Tumans than those of the preceding year.
Notwithstanding the abolition of octroi and Rahdari, the general
suppression of export duties, and unfavourable political conditions by
which progress was retarded, the net yield of the Persian Customs
during the first seven years of partial or complete reorganisation stood
in a proportion of 31 : 14 to the receipts of the seven years immediately
Various other advantages of a non-fiscal character, but none the
less real, were attained under the change of system. By the abolition
of the arbitrarily collected octroi and Rahdari and by the consequent
equalisation of customs duty to all, Persian merchants were placed for
the first time on the same footing as their European rivals, and trade
received a great impetus. The abolition of export duty on many kinds
of merchandise still further stimulated commercial activity. In 1907
it was calculated that the foreign trade of Northern Persia had increased
within the last few years by 80 per cent., while the actual, as distin
guished from the apparent, increase, in Southern Persia between
1903-1904 and 1905-1906 was estimated at not less than 20 per cent.
The growth of exports was specially remarkable, for while imports had
increased by 68f per cent, exports had risen by no less than 99 per
cent.; and, whereas in 1900-01 the proportion of exports to imports
was only 36 to 64, in 1905-06 it stood at 44 to 56.
The progress described above was achieved in the face of unusual
difficulties,—chiefly the powerlessness of the Persian Government in
parts of the country, defects in the administrative system, the interest
of local authorities in contraband operations, and the existence of great
geographical facilities for smuggling. All these unfavourable conditions
were present in a high degree in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. region. In many
places custom houses either could not be established at all, or, when
established, were unable to fulfil their functions; and contempts of the
authority of Customs officers, and even violent resistance^ to their
proceedings, were of common occurrence. The coast districts of the
Gulf were divided between the administrations of the Shaikh of Muham-
mareh, the Governor of the Gulf Ports, and the Governors-General of
Fars and Kirman, which in some localities were intermingled ; and the result
was an almost entire absence of uniform and successful action along the
coast from Muhammareh to Gwatar, for each administrator was indiffer
ent to what happened in the jurisdiction of his neighbour. The Khans
of Rud-hilleh, Tangistan, Dashti and Gaih were deeply implicated in ^ the
contraband trade and even maintained customs houses of their own, especially
the Khan of Rud-hilleh, who was said to guarantee the safety of goods
landed under his auspices against capture by the Customs until they
should have reached Khushab. The results of these " frauds/"' as they
were officially styled, or rather of this open defiance of the Customs,
were often very marked; thus at Rig, where the Khans had been
granted compensation for the loss of the customs at the rate of 5,000
Tumans a year, the amount collected never equalled this annual allow
ance ; in Tangistan smuggling was so rife that tea there sold 40 per
cent, cheaper than in the neighbouring town of Bushehr; at Minab

About this item


This volume is Volume I, Part II (Historical) of the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , ’Omān and Central Arabia (Government of India: 1915), compiled by John Gordon Lorimer and completed for press by Captain L Birdwood.

Part II contains an 'Introduction' (pages i-iii) written by Birdwood in Simla, dated 10 October 1914, 'Table of Chapters, Annexures, Appendices and Genealogical Tables' (pags v-viii), and 'Detailed Table of Contents' (ix-cxxx). These are also found in Volume I, Part IA of the Gazetteer (IOR/L/PS/20/C91/1).

Part II consists of three chapters:

  • 'Chapter X. History of ’Arabistān' (pages 1625-1775);
  • 'Chapter XI. History of the Persian Coast and Islands' (pages 1776-2149);
  • 'Chapter XII. History of Persian Makrān' (pages 2150-2203).

The chapters are followed by nineteen appendices:

Extent and format
1 volume (1165 pages)

Volume I, Part II is arranged into chapters that are sub-divided into numbered periods covering, for example, the reign of a ruler or regime of a Viceroy, or are arbitrarily based on outstanding land-marks in the history of the region. Each period has been sub-divided into subject headings, each of which has been lettered. The appendices are sub-divided into lettered subject headings and also contain numbered annexures, as well as charts. Both the chapters and appendices have further subject headings that appear in the right and left margins of the page. Footnotes appear occasionally througout the volume at the bottom of the page which provide further details and references. A 'Detailed Table of Contents' for Part II and the Appendices is on pages cii-cxxx.

Physical characteristics

The foliation sequence is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio with text, on number 879, and ends on the last folio with text, on number 1503.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part II. J G Lorimer. 1915' [‎2610] (1127/1262), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C91/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 28 November 2023]

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