'Westlicher Theil des sich von Westen nach Osten erstreckenden Thales Muna (Mina) während der grossen jährlichen Pilgerversammlung'. Photographer: al-Sayyid ʻAbd al-Ghaffār

X463/11

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The record is made up of 1 collotype print. It was created in 1886-1889. It was written in Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .

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Content

Genre/Subject Matter:

This landscape view shows ‘the western part of valley of Muna (Mina), which extends from west to east, during the annual gathering of pilgrims [the hadj]’ from an elevated position northeast of the Masjid al-Khayf in Muna, seven kilometres east of the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. Muna (Mina) is a station of the hadj, where pilgrims camp out on the 8th, 11th, 12th (and some on the 13th) of Dhul-Hijjah , as can be seen in this image.

See Photo 174/9 for a comparative view from a similar vantage point but with a closer view of the Masjid al-Khayf, which here appears in the left of the background. The structure to the right of the iwan-like entryway, which appears damaged in the latter view, here appears intact. In the far middle ground at right two and three-storey structures can be seen. A ridge of hills rises along the horizon.

The middle ground is occupied by tents, while in the foreground there are a wide variety of beasts of burden, such as horses, camels and donkeys, standing, tethered or couched.

The negative has had hand-work applied, creating a drawing-like quality, particularly in the background, where the original plate may have been over-exposed.

Arabic script written directly into the image has been erased subtly, but is visible upon close inspection in the lower right of the image as well as in the central sky area of the image.

This is the first of two photographs taken from the same vantage point, which form a panoramic view over the valley. The second is X463/12.

Inscriptions:

Above image, on the right, in ink: ‘X’

Temporal Context:

According to Durkje van der Wal in his publication Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: The First Western Photographer in Mecca, 1884-1885 (Amsterdam : Manfred & Hanna Heiting Fund, Rijksmuseum, 2011, pp. 43-51), the photographs in this publication that pertain to the hadj (this image included) likely date to August 1888 since this was the period of the last hadj before February 1889, the date Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje received the final consignment of images.

Extent and format
1 collotype print
Physical characteristics

Dimensions:

185 x 237 mm

Format:

Collotype print, pasted into volume

Condition:

The print is in good condition with minor surface dirt and light abrasions throughout.

Foliation:

‘X’

Process:

Collotype

Written in
Arabic in Arabic script
Type
Photograph

Archive information for this record

Access & Reference

Original held at
British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity.
Access conditions

Unrestricted

Archive reference
X463/11

History of this record

Date(s)
1886-1889 (CE, Gregorian)

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'Westlicher Theil des sich von Westen nach Osten erstreckenden Thales Muna (Mina) während der grossen jährlichen Pilgerversammlung'. Photographer: al-Sayyid ʻAbd al-Ghaffār, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, X463/11, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023514790.0x000012> [accessed 5 March 2024]

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