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'Persian Gulf précis. (Parts I and II)' [‎7r] (13/120)

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The record is made up of 1 file (60 folios). It was created in 1913. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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Tho Porte having protested on the 6th November 1896 against the
British naval expedition to Zohara, the following note was addressed to the
Turkish Ambassador in London in December 1896 :—
" Your Excellency states that Zobara has been under the dominion of the
secret E, p,bra.r, 1897. No., 161 -168. Turkish Empire from the earlie8t times,
and that the Imperial Government con
sider that the proceedings of Her Majesty's ships against a tribe which had
taken refuge under the Ottoman flag constitute an act of hostility incompatible
with the friendly relations existing between the two countries.
"In reply to Your Excellency's note, I beg leave to remind you of what
is stated in regard to the position of Bahrain and Zobara in the Memorandum
which was communicated to Your Excellency's predecessor on the 23rd of
August of last year.
" Her Majesty's Government adhere to the view expressed in that Memo
randum. They consider that the measures in question were necessary for the
defence of Bahrain, which is under the protection of Great Britain, and they
cannot admit the contention that the portion of the coast of the Persian
Gulf in which Zobara is situated is within the jurisdiction of the Ottoman
7. In December 1893, the Turks objected to the visit of H. M.'s
"Brisk" to Bida and to the proposal of the Commander to hold torpedo
practice in what was claimed to be Turkish waters. In this connection the
Government of India authorised the Kesident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. * to
secret e.. may 1894, Nos. 558-5C9. inform the Senior Naval Officer, Aden
Division, that His Majesty's ships
were not to recognise Turkish rule at El Bida, and that British Naval Com
manders had long been empowered to act at El Bida, as at other places on the
El Katar Coast, in such manner as might be necessary to prevent, or punish,
disturbances of the ^maritime peace. It was explained, however, that the
Governor-General in Council was desirous that British Naval Officers should
avoid giving Turkish officials any opportunity of asserting by overt action, such
nominal authority as the Porte possesses in the locality, and considered that, to
this end, His Majesty's ships should refrain from visiting the harbour of El
Bida, except when special occasion arose for so doing. The instructions were
approved by Her late Majesty's Government.
8. His Majesty's ships can further take action against the Ratar Chiefs
Secret e., March 1907. Nos. 72C-.728. ? nd tribesmen in cases of proved piracy
in territorial waters. This principle
was enunciated in a case of piracy committed in 19U7 on a Persian boat at Abu
Dhaluf on the Katar Coast, and affirmed in 1910 in a similar case at Euwairat
also on the Katar Coast. The following extract contains the present views of
His Majesty's Government as regards action in cases of piracy on the Katar
" It will be seen that, although the deliberate wrecking of the Persian
boat is not clearly established, the Acting Political Besident is of opinion that
the tribesmen on the coast were guilty of improper action in the case, and it
is proposed that a fine of Rs. 1,000 should be exacted and paid to the Persians
in partial compensation of their loss, and that the gear, &c., of the wrecked
boat in the possession of the tribesmen should be restored, or in default, that
their value, Bs. 650, should also be paid. If necessary, this penalty would be
enforced by seizing at sea some of the tribesmen's boats.
" On the other hand, the Porte claims sovereign rights over the coast of
El Katar which have never been admitted by the British Government. But
since the question has not been settled and it is doubtful whether the penalties
proposed could be enlorced without action on shore, it would seem to be
expedient to avoid intervention unless a clear case for it could be established.
In the present case there are elements of doubt, and Secretary Sir E. Grey may
be disposed on these grounds to defer the action proposed by the Government
of India until a better case is established."

About this item


A printed précis of correspondence on various Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. subjects, prepared for the Foreign Department of the Government of India, Simla, in July 1911 (Part I) and July 1913 (Part II). The document is divided into two parts. Most subjects relate to Turkish claims to sovereignty in the region, including the presence of Turkish garrisons, and were chosen and prepared because of the negotiations between the British and Turkish authorities connected to the Baghdad Railway plans.

Part I (folios 2-35) covers various subjects and is organised into eleven chapters, each devoted to a different topic or geographical area, as follows: Chapter I, British interests in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Extent of Arabian littoral; Chapter II, Extent of Hasa and Katif [Qatif], Claims of the Turks to the whole of Eastern Arabia, Extent to which Turkish claims on the Arabian littoral are recognised by His Majesty's government, Proposed arrangement with the Turkish Government defining their sphere of influence on the Arabian littoral; Chapter III, Turkish occupation of El Bida [Doha], Extent of the Katar [Qatar] Peninsula; Chapter IV, Turkish designs on Katar, Policy of His Majesty's Government; Chapter V, Trucial Chiefs (Pirate Coast); Chapter VI, Maskat [Muscat] and Gwadar; Chapter VII, Kuwait; Chapter VIII, Um Kasr [Umm Qasr], Bubiyan and Warba; Chapter IX, Bahrain, Zakhnuniyeh [Zahnūnīyah] and Mohammerah [Korramshahr]; Chapter X, Proposed British action consequent on Turkish aggression; Chapter XI, Pearl fisheries. There are three appendices containing further correspondence relating to the main text.

Part II (folios 36-60) relates entirely to the Baghdad Railway and the negotiations between the British and Ottoman authorities that the proposal of the railway initiated. The negotiations covered several matters, including: the political statuses of Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar; the location of the railway's terminus; the ownership of the railway; and the creation of a commission for the improvement of navigation in the Chatt-el-Arab [Shaṭṭ al-‘Arab]. It opens with an introduction of the related issues (folios 37-41) followed by the relative correspondence (folios 42-53). It ends with the draft agreements (folios 53-60) - never ratified - drawn up by the two powers.

Extent and format
1 file (60 folios)

The document is arranged in two parts. The first part is then divided into chapters, each covering a different topic or geographical location. The correspondence section of the second part is in rough chronological order.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the sequence commences at the front cover, and terminates at the inside back cover; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the volume also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Condition: folios 59 and 60 have both been torn in two corners, resulting in the loss of some text.

Written in
English and French in Latin script
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'Persian Gulf précis. (Parts I and II)' [‎7r] (13/120), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/C250, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 19 November 2019]

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