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The record is made up of 1 file (42 folios). It was created in 24 Apr 1913. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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Introductory Note.
This Memorandum is divided into four
parts :—
Part I.—History.
The first part deals with the history of British
relations with Turkish Arabia, in connection with
the navigation of the Mesopotamian rivers, and
is designed to show the origin and progress of
those relations with the view of determining the
rights, whether acquired by prescription or grant,
which Great Britain possesses of participating in
the trade and navigation of those rivers.
This part will naturally fall into two sub
divisions :—
(a.) The first, dealing with the earlier period,
viz., 1579 to 1859, is concerned with the acqui
sition of rights by the East India Company,
which eventually became merged in those
obtained by the British Government, and by the
British Government for its own vessels and for
the vessels and commerce of British subjects
generally; and
(6.) The second part deals with the period
commencing in 1860 and continuing to the
present time, which is concerned with the main
tenance of British rights generally and with the
acquisition and maintenance of special privileges
on behalf of the Euphrates and Tigris Steam
Navigation Company (Messrs. Lynch and Co.).
In this part the treaties and other arrange
ments entered into by the Ottoman Government
with Great Britain and with other Powers, are
only briefly alluded to, as they are more fully
discussed in the second part.
Part II.—Treaties.
The second part discusses the rights accruing
to Great Britain from treaties between herself
and the Ottoman Empire and between the
Ottoman Empire and other nations.
Part HI.— Conclusion.
The third part contains a statement of the
various conclusions which may be deduced from
the details contained in the first two parts

About this item


Memorandum, written by Richard William Brant and Edward Parkes of the Foreign Office, Apr 1913 regarding navigation on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The memorandum is divided into four parts:

  • Historical Memorandum respecting the navigation of the Mesopotamian rivers. The memorandum describes the history of British relations with Turkish Arabia and the progress of their relations in order to determine the rights that Great Britain possesses which allow it to participate in the trade and navigation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The memorandum covers both the period where rights were acquired by the East India Company (1579-1859) and from 1860s onwards where rights and special privileges were acquired and maintained on behalf of the Tigris and Euphrates Steam Navigation Company (folios 8-66);
  • British rights by treaty with regard to the navigation of the Tigris and Euphrates, which looks at the rights accrued by Great Britain through treaties with the Ottoman Government and through the Ottoman Empire's treaties with other nations (folios 67-70);
  • Conclusions, which summarises the conclusions that can be drawn from the information provided in both the historical memorandum and the treaties sections (folios 71-74);
  • Chronological Table covering the period 1759 to 1912, with annual entries from 1873 onwards (folios 75-119) ;
  • Annex: Instances where the employment of British steamers in the navigation of the Tigris and Euphrates has been asserted or admitted to be limited by the Firmans of 1834 and 1841;
  • Appendices: 34 items which are listed on folio 122, and include extracts and copies of Treaties, Firmans, Memorandum, Circulars and other relevant documents covering the period 1718 to 1912.
Extent and format
1 file (42 folios)
Physical characteristics

Foliation: The main foliation sequence commences at the inside front cover, and terminates at the inside back cover; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio (except for the front cover where the folio number is on the verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. ). An additional foliation sequence is also present in parallel between folios 4-139; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled, and can be found in the same position as the main sequence.

Pagination: The volume also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'MEMORANDUM RESPECTING THE NAVIGATION OF THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES.' [‎7r] (14/284), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/18/B199, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 23 July 2018]

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