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‘Report on the administration of the Persian Gulf Political Agency and Muscat Political Agency for the year 1883-84.’ [‎44r] (27/166)

The record is made up of 1 volume (87 folios). It was created in 1884. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .

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4
EESIDENCY AND MUSCAT POLITICAL AGENCY An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. FOE 1883-84.
25
appointed to succeed him and started for "Oman, but was murdered by the way. Mutlak was
then again despatched in command with orders to renew hostilities and chastise the Omanis.
In the month of November 1813 Mutlak embarked on his last campaign; he marched through
the Dhahireh to Sharkiyeh, intending to direct his operations against the tribes of this
province. He reached, almost unopposed, the country of the Hejrieen ; but here he met with
a resistance he had hardly looked for. In the first encounter Mutlak was shot in the breast
by a musket ball and fell dead. The Wahabees immediately fell into disorder, became
dispersed, and retreated hastily to Bereymee. Mutlak''s arms and coat-of-mail were carried
to Muscat, and the dark cloud of Wahabee domination over 'Oman was scattered. The hopes
of the Wahabee Amir attaining the conquest of J Oman were lost in Mutlak. To his able
and dashing generalship the success of the Wahabee invasions has been chiefly due, and the
Amir had no one of similar capacity to replace him. Sa^eed's fortunes were now in the
ascendant; he had passed through the period of adversity, and his career henceforward, though
not marked by uninterrupted success, was brilliant and prosperous.
Early in 1814 the death of Azzan-bin-Kais at Mokha, while returning from pilgrimage,
gave Sa'eed the possession of Sohar, and three months later the death of the Amir Saood from
fever at Dereyeh was a still more decided turn of fortune's wheel in his favour. Relieved from
foreio-n pressure Sa^eed's restless spirit now sent him on another expedition against Ras-el-
Khaimah, the chief stronghold of the Kowasim. He succeeded in establishing Shaikh Sultan-
bin-Sakar at Shargah, but the lukewarmness of his Arab allies caused the failure of the chief
object of the enterprise, and, after arranging a truce for the sake of appearances, he returned
to Muscat. The Ameer Abdulla, who had succeeded his father Saood, now appointed a new agent
at Muscat, the reverses sustained in his wars with the Egyptians having led him to adopt
a more pacific policy. Hopes of a permanent peace were entertained and negociations were
opened, but they fell through owing to disputes about Eas-el-Khaimah, and hostilities with
'Oman' recommenced. The Kowasim also began to display renewed activity at sea and sent
a fleet to pirate the Indian trading craft in the Gulf of 'Oman. This fleet, among other
exploits, encountered the frigate Caroline of 40 guns, commanded by Sa'eed himself, off Ra-
Kuryah, and nearly succeeded in carrying her by boarding ; Sa'eed was wounded by a musket
ball, and escaped with difficulty to Muscat, the victorious Kowasim sailing away to the
Mekran coast to continue their depredations.
For some time after this Sa'eed's attention was engaged by internal disorders in the
Nakhl district, where Himyar -bin-Suliman El Yaaraby, the representative of the last dynasty,
had in alliance with Mohammed Nasir-el-Jabri seized the fort. Sa'eed attempted to dispossess
Himyar, but was defeated in the field, and it was only by treachery that he was able ultimately
to entice Himyar within his reach and put him to death. In the beginning of 1816 Sa'eed
undertook a third expedition against Ras-el-Khaimah, which he blockaded for four months, but
being unable to gain any success over his enemies, the Kowasim retired discomfited to
Muscat.
Undiscouraged by this failure, Sa'eed now determined on undertaking the conquest of the
rich island of Bahrein, an object on which he had long set his heart, and on which he had for
months past been engaged in making preparations. The British Resident at Bushire did his
utmost to dissuade Sa'eed from this enterprise, but in vain. Sa'eed, however, was destined
never to possess that island, although he continued to cherish the hope of its acquisition to
the day of his death. In June the expedition sailed from Muscat and was joined by three
Persian vessels from Bushire. The Omanis were landed on the island, but were attacked and
defeated with great loss by the Attoobees, Sa'eed's younger brother Hamad being slain in the
fio-ht. Chagrined at his ill-success, which was due in great measure to the treachery of his allies,
Sa'eed sailed away to Congoon, to embark a Persian force that had been promised him, but he
fortunately discovered in time that he was being led into snare by the Persians, who intended
to carry him a prisoner to Shiraz, and, abandoning his project against Bahrein, returned to
'Oman,
It was at this time that Ibrahim Pasha An Ottoman title used after the names of certain provincial governors, high-ranking officials and military commanders. , at the head of the Egyptian army, was marching
across Arabia, intent on accomplishing the final destruction of the Wahabee Empire. The
Ameer Abdulla had need of every available man to aid in the defence of his country, and not
only was every Nejdian soldier withdrawn from 'Oman, but the Arab spirit of clannishness, or
perhaps the ingrained hatred of Arab against Turk, induced a large contingent from the
Ghaffiree, or Maaddie, tribes of El Dhahireh to flock to the standard of the Ameer at Dereyeh.
In September 1817 communications were received from the French Governor of Bourbon,
proposing a renewal of commercial relations between that island and Muscat, and a favourable

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Content

Administration Report on the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. and Muscat Political Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. for the year 1883-84, by Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Charles Ross, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , published by Authority by the Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta [Kolkata]. A copy of a letter from Ross to Charles Grant, Secretary to the Government of India (Foreign Department), dated 17 July 1884, is included in the report (folio 33), the original of which submitted the report to Government, under the following headings:

Part 1 ( General Report ), written by Ross (folios 34-39), containing summaries of local political affairs, and incidents or events of particular note for: Oman and the Pirate Coast; Bahrain; Nejd, El-Hasa [Al-Hasa] and El-Katr [Qatar]; Fars, including Lingah [Bandar-e Lengeh] and Bunder Abbass [Bandar-e ʻAbbās], and the coast between Bushire and Bandar-e Lengeh; Persian Arabistan; Persian Beloochistan [Baluchistan] and Gwadur; and Bassidore. The report also contains summaries of changes in official personnel (referred to as political establishment); British naval movements in the Gulf; and a summary of meteorological events observed at the Bushire observatory. Appendix A contains tabulated and graphical meteorological data for the year, supplied by the Bushire observatory.

Part 2 ( Administration Report of the Muscat Political Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. for the year 1883-84 ), submitted by Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Barrett Miles, Her Britannic Majesty’s Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. and Consul at Muscat, dated 9 June 1884 (folios 40-50), containing a summary of affairs at Muscat, including raids and fighting around Muscat in October 1884, between rebel forces and those allied to the Sultan of Muscat. The report also records changes to British official personnel at Muscat, and notes recent shipwrecks on the Muscat coast. Appendix A is a biographical sketch, written by Miles, of Sayyid Sa'eed-bin-Sultan, the Imam of Muscat.

Part 3 ( Report on Trade for the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. for 1883 , folios 50-105), comprising a short summary of the year’s trade, and followed by two appendices, labelled A and B, but arranged in reverse order: B) Supplementary notes on the care and culture of date trees and fruit, written by A. R. Hakim, Assistant to the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ; A) tabulated data on trade, including data on imports and exports into and out of the Gulf ports of Bushire, Lingah [Bandar-e Lengeh], Bunder Abbass [Bandar-e ʻAbbās], Bahrain and the Arab (Oman) coast. An index to the trade tables can be found at folios 53-54.

Part 4 (

[at Muscat]), submitted by Miles, dated 9 June 1884 (folios 105-12), comprising a short summary of the year’s trade at Muscat, and an appendix containing tabulated data on imports and exports at Muscat (listed by commodity), and the nationality and average tonnage of vessels visiting Muscat.

Extent and format
1 volume (87 folios)
Arrangement

The report is arranged into four numbered parts, with lettered appendices containing further reports and statistical data after each. Two appendices following part two of the report are labelled in reverse order (B then A, instead of A then B).

Physical characteristics

Foliation: There is a foliation sequence, which is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio, on number 32, and ends on the last folio, on number 112.

Pagination: The volume contains an original typed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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‘Report on the administration of the Persian Gulf Political Agency and Muscat Political Agency for the year 1883-84.’ [‎44r] (27/166), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/V/23/45, No 198, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023580328.0x00001d> [accessed 21 April 2024]

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