‘Report on the administration of the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Muscat Political Agency for 1884-85.’ [19v] (34/130)
The record is made up of 1 volume (63 folios). It was created in 1885. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
ADMINISTEATION REPORT OF THE PERSIAN GULP POLITIC^ L
The Viceroy at that time, Dom Buarte deMenezes,
despatched Dom Gon Calo in advance to enconrage the gams ; t ' nee . The arrival of
speedy setting out of a fleet nnder Dom Lmz deMenezes to ^cir ass.sta
Dom Gon 9 alo seems to have tnrned the tables f ! V0U ; 1 ? £ f ^ e that
have restored their predominant position through the < tea o lc rL , Ar.,; 01 - had been sent
had been perpetrated. In the meantime Manoel n'A^
back by the commandant to try and recover the prisoners in Oman. On a „
found L place deserted, owing, as he learned, to the fear entertained by th ;
new Persian Governor of Kilhat, Reis Dclamin Shah, was about to attek th ^ 0 ; ^|
of M. deSonza Tavarcs' arrival, however, the Sheikh presently returned to the t 0 "*
solicited Portuguese protection. Having no reason foi < e a y in » er ®'
deTavares proceeded to Kilhat where his demand for the surrender of e « a P ' v ® s
decided refusal from the Acting Governor, Khoja Zein -ul-Din, who said he had a letter
the King Toorun Shah for Dom Lniz deMenezes, and that he would wait for the latte
It was in February 1522 when Dom Luiz deMenezes set out from Chaul witb a flotilla o£
three galleys, four fustas and one caravella to avenge the massacre and restore order, having
already despatched in advance the new Commandant of Hormuz, Joao Rodngues deNoronha, to
relieve Continho, whose three years tenure of office had expired. Dom Luiz anchored first at
Kilhat, where his first demand was for the surrender of the captives, now reduced to 26 in
number. The Governor replied by sending off the King's letter addressed to Dom Luiz, which
contained nothing but a series of complaints against the present and former Portuguese Corn-
mandants of Hormuz, but he evaded the demand for the delivery of the prisoners by saying
that he had no authority, and must await the new Governor. Dom Luiz being in want of
water for his ships, proceeded to Teynwee, where a collision occurred with the Arabs, in which
the latter were defeated, and in revenge for which they murdered seven Portuguese they had
in their hands. While at this place, Dom Luiz received a message from Sheikh Rashid,
reporting the approach by land to Muscat of Reis Delamin Shah with a large force, and be
seeching armed support. Dom Luiz accordingly detached the caravella for Muscat with orders
to support the Sheikh from the sea as far as the guns of the vessel would reach, but to under
take no operations on shore. The Sheikh, nevertheless, obtained the aid of five Portuguese
volunteers, and attacking the Persians in the Great Wady completely defeated them, their leader,
Delamir Shah, being killed in the fight. Dom Luiz arrived at Muscat two days after this
affair, and having congratulated the Sheikh, rewarded him handsomely for his loyalty and
nrotection to the Portuguese during the revolt. He then stationed a fusta as security for the
port and apparently for the first time established here a garrison of 20 men for the defence
of the town.
After a stay of four days, during which time he was joined by two more vessels from
Goa, Dom Luiz set out for Sohar, where there was a large Persian garrison. The Arab chief
in the neighbourhood of Sohar at this time was Sultan-biu-Mesood, who dwelt in the interior
near the hills and whose army was composed of 250 horse and 3,000 foot. Another neighbour
was Sheikh Husein-bin-Saeed, the Chief of the great tribe Ben Jabra, who had 300 horse and
4,000 foot. These Ben Jabra were Bedouins, and possessed more than 500 leagues of country.
Sheikh Husein was therefore the lord of all the interior as well as the Island of El Bahrein
and the entire coast as far south as Dhofar.
Dom Luiz having information about these two important personages, who being Arabs
were always at war with the Persians of Hormuz, determined to seek their alliance, and
accordingly wrote to them, offering to put them in possession of Sohar if they would aid him in
ousting the Persians. To this proposal the two Sheikhs readily agreed, but Dom Luiz was
detained on his way to Sohar by contrary winds, and in the meantime, by an untoward incident
which occurred off the Batineh coast, Sultan-bin-Mesood became estrano-ed
Dom Luiz's plan was that the Arabs should surround Sohar by land while he attacked
it from the sea ; but on his arrival there on the 11th March 1522 he found Sheikh Husein
only with his force in position. Sheikh Sultan having retired in dudgeon. The gallant Persian
Governor, Reis Shehab-ul-Din, moreover, had already effected his escape, leaving his garrison
of 80 men to defend the fort as best they might. Dom Luiz arranged to attack the place at
once, but the garrison, deserted by their leader and dreading the resentment of their enemy
had no intention of awaiting the assault; and having bribed the Arabs outside, were allowed to
pass through their lines at night and decamp ii> the darkness. The Portuguese troops on
shore hearing of this, scaled the walls and entered the fort, and having massacred or captured
About this item
Administration Report on the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. and Muscat Political Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. for the year 1884-85, published by Authority by the Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta [Kolkata]. A copy of a letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Charles Ross, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , to Henry Mortimer Durand, Secretary to the Government of India (Foreign Department), dated 18 May 1885, is included in the report (folio 5), the original of which submitted the report to Government, under the following headings:
Part 1 ( General Summary ), written by Ross, dated 30 April 1885 (folios 6-11), containing summaries of local political affairs, and incidents or events of particular note for: Oman and the Pirate Coast; Bahrain; Nejd, El-Hasa [Al-Hasa] and El-Katr [Qatar]; Fars; Persian Arabistan; Persian Baluchistan; and Bassidore. The report also records a marked increase in the slave trade to the Gulf from Africa; summaries of changes in official personnel; British naval movements in the Gulf; and a summary of meteorological events observed at the Bushire observatory. Appendix A contains tabulated and graphical meteorological data for the year, supplied by the Bushire observatory.
Part 2 ( Administration Report of the Muscat Political Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. for the year 1884-85 ), submitted by Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Barrett Miles, Her Britannic Majesty’s Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. and Consul at Muscat (folios 12-23), containing a summary of affairs at Muscat, and an additional short report on the revival of the slave trade between Muscat and Zanzibar, a likely result, suggests Miles, of the departure of HMS London from Zanzibar. Appendix A is a report of Miles’s visit to Ras Fartak. Appendix B is an historical sketch, also written by Miles, on the Portuguese in Eastern Arabia.
Part 3 ( Report on Trade for the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. for 1884 ), written by Ross and dated April 1885 (folios 24-59), comprising a short summary of the year’s trade, with notes on: grain; opium; cotton; tobacco; imported goods; the increase in piece goods; sugar; the activities of European firms in the Gulf; steamers; the Dutch Commercial Treaty; trade routes; naphtha springs; and pearl fishing. Appendix A comprises tabulated data on import, exports and revenue, in the Gulf ports of Bushire, Lingah [Bandar-e Lengeh], Bunder Abbass [Bandar-e ʻAbbās], Bahrain and the Arab (Oman) coast. An index to the trade tables can be found at folios 25-26.
Part 4 (Trade [at Muscat]), submitted by Miles (folios 59-66), comprising a short summary of the year’s trade at Muscat, and an appendix containing tabulated data on imports and exports at Muscat (listed by commodity), and the nationality and average tonnage of vessels visiting Muscat.
- Extent and format
- 1 volume (63 folios)
The report is arranged into four numbered parts, with lettered appendices containing further reports and statistical data after each part.
- Physical characteristics
Condition: Some tears and holes in the paper, but not sufficient to impair legibility. Fold-out at f 10.
Foliation: There is a foliation sequence, which is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio, on number 4, and ends on the last folio, on number 66.
Pagination: The volume contains an original typed pagination sequence.
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- IOR/V/23/47, No 207
- ‘Report on the administration of the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Muscat Political Agency for 1884-85.’
- front, 3v:67r, back
- East India Company, the Board of Control, the India Office, or other British Government Department
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- Open Government Licence