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'File 45/23 I (D 140) Kuwait Reforms' [‎56r] (129/455)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (222 folios). It was created in 4 Apr 1938-19 Sep 1938. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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Translation of an Arabic leaflet "by the Kuwait Secret Spcie^y
to the People of Kuwaiti '
To the people of Kuwait, the Generous^ the Oppressed,
the Despised, the Forgotten, To you,0 people, we direct this
our call, you are entitled to your rights. Our patience has
"been exhausted, and there remains nothing, after all the
efforts which we have made to get our rights, except the
defence of the soulo
In Kuwait a secret society has "been formed, for the
sole purpose of defending you, which has taken an Oath "by the
name pf the Almighty God to wage a holy war for your sake,
and which will never turn hack untill the Almighty wills
Victory for the people and shameful failure for the traitors<»
This holy war will, primarily, he waged in a non-violent
manner, and "by peaceful requests to H.H. the Amir who may,
perhaps, realise his mistake and "be drawn towards your wishes
for progress, and your emest desires for improvementso
As H.H. has many times openly said that he has the
"best wishes and intentions for his state, we now come
forward to him with this circular, so thaXhe may have no
excuse, "by making it an open proof against him, so that he
may "be held fully responsible for our holy war which may
have to "be continued for a long time.
The clouds of oppression overhanging Kuwait are
oppressions in Laws, in the squandering of public funds, the
depriving of the Kuwaiti people from progressive measures,
the employment of foreigners, who act as mounts for dictator
colonists, the terrorising of the public for payment of
higher revenues, and oppressions which are directed against
us from all points of our existance.
The society leaves aside all near and far away hye-
gones to be byegones, acting in accordance with the Islamic
Shari-at which says "God has forgiven the past", and hereby
the society puts down her demands as under; -

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The volume contains correspondence relating to the formation of a Legislative Council in Kuwait following unrest among its people and criticism of its government in the Iraqi press. Included are newspaper articles, a list of the names of those elected to the Legislative Council of Kuwait (folio 75) and a list of demands made by the Council (folio 76). The main correspondents include: Gerald De Gaury, Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Kuwait; Trenchard Fowle, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. at Bushire; Lawrence Dundas, Secretary of State for India; the Foreign Office in London; Maurice Peterson, British Ambassador in Iraq; Air Officer Commanding for British Forces in Iraq; Sheikh Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah [Āl Ṣabāḥ, Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir], ruler of Kuwait; and other Government of India officials.

The correspondence includes:

  • Abdication discussions about Sheikh Ahmad of Kuwait;
  • Overview of the administration and control of justice, education, medical services, municipalities and desert land (folios 83-99);
  • Appointment of a British customs officer in Kuwait;
  • Opposition of the Persian population of Kuwait to the Legislative Council.

There are internal office notes at the back of the volume (folios 207-214), written by officials of the British Political Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. at Bushire.

Extent and format
1 volume (222 folios)

The volume is arranged chronologically. At the beginning (folio 1C) is a subject index, arranged alphabetically. The numbers refer to folio numbers.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: The foliation sequence commences at the first folio and terminates at the last folio. The folio numbers are written in pencil in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. Circled index numbers in red crayon can also be found throughout the volume. There are the following irregularities: 1, 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D; 30 and 30A. Folio 200 is omitted.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'File 45/23 I (D 140) Kuwait Reforms' [‎56r] (129/455), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/468, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 10 December 2023]

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