'File 10/3 VI Qatar Oil Concession' [64r] (139/481)
The record is made up of 1 volume (234 folios). It was created in 25 Jul 1934-14 Jan 1935. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
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From the Accession of Saud bin Abdul Aziz to the Egyptian
Conquest of the Wahabis.
Amir Saud Jhn Ahrhd Aziz (November 1803-1814).
Amir Ahdulla Bin Saud (1814-1818}.
15. Between 1801 and 1814 the Wahabis consolidated their influence in Trucial
Oman, delivered repeated attacks on the Sultan of Muscat, and for the first time
came into contact with the British Government. Between 1814 and 1818 they
succumbed to the attacks of the Egyptians and their power temporarily ended.
It will be most convenient to deal with their relations with the various sections of
the Arab littoral seriatim.
Muscat and the Waiiabis, 1804-1818.
10. Saiyid Sultan died in 1804, and the Wahabis took an active share in the
disputes which followed about the succession. Saiyid Badr, to whom they lent their
support, was finally elected Sultan in 1805. 1 he new Sultan, who in 1806 co-operated Lor. I, 107G.
with the British expedition against the Jowasimi pirates (paragraph 24 below), ruled
the Sultanate till his assassination by Said bin Sultan in 1807. Said bin Sultan,
who was to rule till 1856, was hostile to Wahabi influence, although he continued Lor. I, 1075,
to allow a Wahabi Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. to reside at Muscat, and in 1809 he conducted ^42.
au abortive expedition against the new Wahabi Sheikh of the Jowasimis. In the
same year the Wahabis delivered a successful attack upon the Sultan from Baraimi,
aud the punitive expedition sent in 1809 by the Government of India against the
Jowasimi pirates (paragraph 25 below) had as an incidental object the easing of
the pressure on the Sultan. In L810-11, on the withdrawal of the British expedition,
further successful attacks were made from Baraimi by Syed bin Mutlak, the Wahabi
lieutenant there, in face of which the Sultan appealed, but unsuccessfully, to the
Government of India for assistance. These attacks in 1812-13 penetrated to the
south-east of Muscat at Sur and Jaalan; and in the latter place the Beni bu Ali
tribe were permanently converted to Wahabism. In 1811 Bahrein was freed from
Wahabi rule by the Sultan of Muscat, who inflicted a severe defeat on the Wahabis
in Qatar in 1812. In 1813 the Sultan endeavoured to co-operate with the Lor. 1,445.
Egyptians, who were now massing for their attack upon Nejd. A Wahabi attack
from Baraimi again, however, led to his temporary submission and to the payment
of a large fine. The increasing pressure of the Egyptians on the Wahabis appears
now to have led to a diminution of Wahabi activity in eastern Arabia ; with the
death of the Amir Saud in 1814 all further danger ceased by land, and from that
date to the fall of the Wahabi power in 1818 little is heard of them in connection
with Muscat, although in 1816 the Wahabis assisted the Sheikh of Bahrein to repel
an attempt by the Sultan to re-establish his control over Bahrein.
Trugial Oman and the Wahabis, 1804-1818.
17. During most of the period from 1800 to 1814 the Wahabis appear to have
held a dominating position in Trucial Oman and its hinterland. Their Agent
established himself in 1800 in the oasis of Baraimi, which he fortified and used
as a base for attacks on Muscat or for bringing pressure on the Trucial Sheikhs,
hi 1803 the Jowasimi of Ras-al-Khaimah were compelled to co-operate in a Wahabi
attack on Muscat; but in 1806 a British punitive expedition sent against the Lor. I 105 7,
Jowasimis ignored the Wahabi connection with them, and a convention concluded 1074.
with the Jowasimis in that year was concluded without reference to the Wahabi
Amir and without protest from him. In 1808 Sultan bin Suggar, the hereditary
chief of the -lowasimi Arabs at Ras-al-Khaimah, was deposed by the Wahabis, and in
ml 6 year a Wahabi nominee, the Sheikh of Rams, was substituted for him.
J-he fallen Jowasimi chief was subsequently lured to Nejd and there imprisoned,
but he escaped and returned through the Yemen to Muscat bearing overtures to
the Sultan from the Pasha of Egypt for co-operation against the Wahabis. In Lor. 1,1075,
IoO ( J the Jowasimi responded to a Wahabi request for co-operation against Koweit,
though nothing seems to have come of this.
oi Pirac y broke out in an aggravated form after the deposition of the Jowasimi
leikh of Ras-al-Khaimah and a further British expedition, with which Muscat
co-operated, was sent in 1809 -10 which reduced the pirates to submission. The
a ha hi Agent at Baraimi is alleged to have proceeded to the assistance of
as al-Khaimah ; but, if he did so, he did not arrive until after the departure of the
About this item
The volume mainly contains correspondence, telegrams and memoranda exchanged between the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. and the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. and with the Foreign Office, the Secretary of State for India, the Sheikh of Qatar and the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) on the boundaries of Qatar and the Qatar Oil Concession.
The volume includes:
- correspondence between APOC and the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. on the Qatar Oil Concession, mentioning the opportunity to build a refinery in Qatar;
- information about Bahrain [Buraini)] and its surroundings, with list of tribes which paid Zakah to Ibn Saud in 1922 and the Amir of Hasa in 1926, which includes number of men, camels and sheep for each tribe (ff. 45-56);
- 'Historical Memorandum of the relations of the Wahabi Amirs and Ibn Saud with Eastern Arabia and the British Government, 1800-1934' , published by the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. on 26 September 1934, containing a printed map 'APPENDIX C. MAP SHOWING THE EXTENT OF WAHABI AND OF MUSCAT POWER, 1865 ' (ff. 61-91A);
- draft of Qatar Oil Agreement attached to 14 January 1935 letter from A.P.O.C. to India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. .
There is an index at the end of the volume (folios 216-228).
- Extent and format
- 1 volume (234 folios)
The papers in the volume are arranged chronologically. There is an index at the end of the volume, (folios 216-228). The index is arranged chronologically and refers to documents within the volume; it gives brief description of the correspondence with a reference number, which refers back to that correspondence in the volume.
- Physical characteristics
The foliation is in pencil on the top right corner, encircled. The numbering starts on the first page of writing, then 90, 91A, 91B, 92; and then carries on until 233, which is the last number given on the back cover. There is a second foliation, in pencil on the top right corner, starting on folio 27 (numbered 17); and ending on folio 214 (numbered 201).
- Written in
- English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script View the complete information for this record
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