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'Muscat Treaty' [‎13r] (40/537)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (255 folios). It was created in 10 Jun 1938-29 Nov 1938. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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officers at inland to'vns. Such a claim, however, is perhaps
not likely oe made ana oer se this inability is not a matter
of imporuance, ine same applies also to Muscat who under the
treaty of 19th March 1891 possesses the ri,-ht to appoint
Consular Officers in the territories of G-reat Britain
wherever the interests of commerce may require the presence of
such officers",
4. The rights of these unimportant Powers are based on the
express provisions of their respective treaties. There is no
otner rower, so far as the examination conducted by the
Government of India, has revealed, which enjoys the sane ri.'-^ht
^being restricted to Burma and subject to mutual consent gives
no cause ..or anxiety. But there is one Power that has a plenary
and indefensible right, in virtue of the most-favoured-nation
clause which finds a place in her treaty with Great Britain.
That Power is P ersi a. The treaty concluded with Persia on 4th
March 1857 became applicable to India immediately it was
concluded, and Article IX provides that "the high contracting
parties engage that in the establishment and recognition of
Consuls-General, Consuls each shall be placed in the dominions
of the others on the footing of the most-favoured-nation".
Afghanistan having availed herself of her treaty rights to
appoint a Consular representative at the headquarters of the
Grovernment of India, a Persian claim to make a similar appoint
ment could not, in the opinion of the C-overnment of India, be
5. The Persian frovernment are believed, on the strength
of certain observations made by the present Persian Consul-
General, to cherish some intention of seeking to put their
right into exercise.
6. So far as the Grovernment of India are aware, Persia is
the only Power that has most-favoured-nation rights in respect
of the establishment and recognition of Consular officers as

About this item


Correspondence relating to negotiation of Muscat Treaty in 1938. The Muscat Commercial Treaty 1891 had been renewed every year but in 1938 Sultan Said bin Taimur stated that he was not prepared to renew it further. Correspondence relates to the negotiations over a new treaty, the clauses and their wordings.

Discussions in the correspondence included:

  • Issue of appointment of Consular Officers to inland towns.
  • Whether the treaty could be translated into classical or modern Arabic.
  • Jurisdiction of nationals other than those defined in the 1891 treaty.
  • Customs duties.
  • Importation of items such as alcoholic liquors and tobacco by His Majesty's Consul for his personal use.
  • Arrangements for obtaining Sultan's signature in Muscat or Dhofar.

Includes side-by-side Arabic and English translations of draft clauses as well as a copy of the Arabic and English text proposed for the treaty. The final treaty was composed of 23 articles covering: nationals; aircraft; internal duties and taxes; prohibitions on imports; appointment of Consuls; assistance of vessels in distress; freedom of conscience and religious toleration; procedures for termination of the treaty; the equivalence of the Arabic and English version of the text of the treaty but where dispute English text was considered decisive; length of treaty. Also includes a confidential letter relating to Article 15. Correspondents include: Said bin Taimur [Sa‘īd bin Taymūr], Sultan of Muscat; Sir Trenchard Craven William Fowle, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; Rutherford Berriman Tippetts, Board of Trade, London; India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , Whitehall, London; Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Muscat.

Extent and format
1 volume (255 folios)

The papers are arranged chronologically from the front to the rear of the file.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the system of foliation in use is the sequence of numbers written in pencil in the top right hand corner of each folio.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'Muscat Treaty' [‎13r] (40/537), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/413, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 12 November 2019]

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