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'ROUTES IN PERSIA. SECTION III' [‎269v] (543/739)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (367 folios). It was created in 1898. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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No. 212— concld.
T abriz to R asht, via AliaT y Ardabil and Jstara.
Names of stages.
D istances
in miles.
A nzali
R asht
at embouchure of a small stream. Coast forms a
succession of fine bays, with forest down to beach.
Todd saw several Russian vessels at anchor 2 or 3
miles off shore. Near the mouth of the Karghan-
rud is another Russian fishing station, of 5 or 6
huts, immediately after which the road turns to
the west and ascends by the side of the river,
through the forest, for some 3 miles to the village
of the same name, which is on both banks of
the stream. The houses are scattered amongst
half-cleared thick wood and rice cultivation.
Returned by narrow pathway through forest to the
sea-shore. The district of Karghan-rud ends,
and that of Asalim begins, about a farsakh (6,000
yards) to the south of the Karghan-rud. iSeven
miles beyond is a small village in the district of
Asalim, about a mile up a stream of the same name.
Road similar to that of previous day. Hills about
2 miles distant from the shore, their offsets pro
jecting into the sea with fine bays between the
points. Hills and forests gradually recede from
the shore. Road continues along the sea-beach.
Pass following risers:—Hindi-Karan, Kalfarud,
Nawarud, Allalon-chai, Khalasara, Duna-chai (a
considerable river), the Sambar-kar, Alikion,
Naukandeh, Shu-ari-chai, and Mahmud Tukiani.
Most of them were at this season shallow streams
but become rapid torrents in spring. At 14 miles
from Kala-sarai is the village of Chai-bijah, near
ly depopulated by the plague. Forest gives place
to swamps and brushwood. Soon after leaving
Chai-bijah, the road enters upon a tongue of land
13 miles long, and varying from 300 to 600 yards
in breadth, extending in an east-south-east
direction, which separates the Caspian from the
Murdab, or backwater. Road excellent. A sandy
ridge hides the Caspian from view.
South 35° east. 11 miles leads across the Murdab
or backwater to the south shore, which is covered
with thick underwood, and ascend the Yoderud,
a small winding stream, not more than 15 yards
broad, to the landing-place at Piri bazaar (old man
of the market), so named after Pir Hasan, a saint
who lived here in the reign of Shah Ismail. The
Yoderud is closely bordered with a thick jungle
of seed alders and brambles; progress up it is
slow, poling having often to be resorted to. At
Piri bazaar there are two brick stores for goods.
Thence the road runs for miles through dense
jungle to Rasht.
This route appears a very circuitous one; that by
Sarab is to be preferred.

About this item


The volume is a Government of India official publication entitled Routes in Persia. Section III. Compiled in the Intelligence Branch of the Quarter Master General's Department in India (Simla: printed at the Government Central Printing Office, 1898).

The volume contains details of all land routes (numbered 1-247) in Persia starting from Russian territory and extending south as far as a line drawn from Karmanshah [Kermānshāh] south-eastwards through Burujird [Borūjerd], Isfahan [Eşfahān] and Yazd to Karman [Kermān], and thence north-east to Khabis [Khabīş] and Neh to Lash Juwain [Lāsh-e Juwayn].

The information given for each route comprises:

  • number of route;
  • place names forming starting point and destination of route;
  • authority and date;
  • number of stage;
  • names of stages;
  • distance in miles (intermediate and total);
  • remarks (including precise details of the route, general geographical information, and information on smaller settlements, local peoples, agriculture, condition of roads, access to water, supplies of wood, and other routes).

An appendix within the volume (folios 356-359) and two separately-stored sets of loose sheets (containing routes numbers 77 (a) and 140-A, folios 363-369) give information too late for incorporation in the body of the work.

The volume also contains pockets attached to the front and back inside covers for maps. These consist of an index map showing the limits of each of the three sections of Routes in Persia (folio 2) and an index map to the routes in Section III (folio 361). There is also a fold-out map of the route from Seistan [Sīstān] to Mashad on folio 232.

An ink stamp on the front cover records the confidential nature of the publication and that it was being transmitted for the information of His Excellency the Viceroy (Victor Alexander Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin and 16th Earl of Kincardine) only.

Extent and format
1 volume (367 folios)

The volume contains an alphabetical cross index (folios 6-17), and an alphabetical index to names of places (folios 18-25).

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the front cover and terminates on the last page of the loose supplementary sheets (found in the small grey folder within the main folder); these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the volume also contains a printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'ROUTES IN PERSIA. SECTION III' [‎269v] (543/739), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F111/371, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 19 August 2019]

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