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'ROUTES IN PERSIA. SECTION III' [‎274v] (553/739)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (367 folios). It was created in 1898. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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No. 217— contd,
T ehran to A strabad, via Amul, Barfarush, Sari and As lira/.
Names of stages.
iis miles.
cr 3 miles ; summit almost inaccessible. Rocks,
slates, limestones, and black and white marble.
Occasional indications of coal, with limestone
strata below and clay above ; trap very frequent,
forming entire spurs ; descent 2,700'.
Holmes and Ouseley make two stages between Ask and Parusp,
caves of Kharu
and Parusp. The following* is their account of these two
lload north-east for first 8 miles passes through
several fine villages at the immediate south-east
foot of Mount Damavand. The Haras is crossed
in six places by wooden bridges. Several consi
derable valleys on right bank of stream. At 8
miles pass village of Wanah in a green, cultivated
valley. Beyond, the Haras runs in a deep and
narrow channel between walls of perpendicular
rock. This strong natural defile, about a mile in
length, is said^ to be the only entrance on the
northern side into the district of Larijan. Per
pendicular precipices, scarcely 20 feet asunder,
rise to the height of 100' on each side of the
foaming Haras. The pathway, in some places not
more than 3 feet broad and just high enough to
be practicable for a laden mule, is scarped out of
the face of the rock, 200' above the torrent ; the
parapet is only 6 inches high. At 16 miles val
ley of stream begins to open out. At 20 miles
reach caves of Kharu, cut in side of bill near
some green fields. These afford shelter to the
traveller; but supplies are not to be procured.
Road north proceeds by a succession of steep
pathways cut out of or built upon the face of a
perpendicular rock overhanging the torrent, and
said to be liable to interruption from landslips.
Thence north-east through a wild pass without
a particle of vegetation, and with black fantastic
crags on each side of the river. Between Kharu
and Parusp the stream is crossed in two places by
wooden bridges near the remains of stone ones
swept away by the torrent. At Parusp there is a
ruined and deserted building, which may have
once been a caravansarai. Supplies in small
quantities arQ procurable here, but with great

About this item


The volume is a Government of India official publication entitled Routes in Persia. Section III. Compiled in the Intelligence Branch of the Quarter Master General's Department in India (Simla: printed at the Government Central Printing Office, 1898).

The volume contains details of all land routes (numbered 1-247) in Persia starting from Russian territory and extending south as far as a line drawn from Karmanshah [Kermānshāh] south-eastwards through Burujird [Borūjerd], Isfahan [Eşfahān] and Yazd to Karman [Kermān], and thence north-east to Khabis [Khabīş] and Neh to Lash Juwain [Lāsh-e Juwayn].

The information given for each route comprises:

  • number of route;
  • place names forming starting point and destination of route;
  • authority and date;
  • number of stage;
  • names of stages;
  • distance in miles (intermediate and total);
  • remarks (including precise details of the route, general geographical information, and information on smaller settlements, local peoples, agriculture, condition of roads, access to water, supplies of wood, and other routes).

An appendix within the volume (folios 356-359) and two separately-stored sets of loose sheets (containing routes numbers 77 (a) and 140-A, folios 363-369) give information too late for incorporation in the body of the work.

The volume also contains pockets attached to the front and back inside covers for maps. These consist of an index map showing the limits of each of the three sections of Routes in Persia (folio 2) and an index map to the routes in Section III (folio 361). There is also a fold-out map of the route from Seistan [Sīstān] to Mashad on folio 232.

An ink stamp on the front cover records the confidential nature of the publication and that it was being transmitted for the information of His Excellency the Viceroy (Victor Alexander Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin and 16th Earl of Kincardine) only.

Extent and format
1 volume (367 folios)

The volume contains an alphabetical cross index (folios 6-17), and an alphabetical index to names of places (folios 18-25).

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the front cover and terminates on the last page of the loose supplementary sheets (found in the small grey folder within the main folder); these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the volume also contains a printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'ROUTES IN PERSIA. SECTION III' [‎274v] (553/739), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F111/371, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 20 September 2019]

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