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'ROUTES IN PERSIA. SECTION III' [‎281r] (566/739)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (367 folios). It was created in 1898. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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No. 219— contd.
Tehran to Astrabad, via Lar Valley, Firuzlcuh and Chashma-i-AlL
in miles.
Names of stages.

their cattle and collect tlieir harvest, and go in
the winter to their village Haftar, which is half
way on the road between Samnan and Firuzkuh.
Telegraph line between the last named places
passes through Haftar. Road goes for a mile
from this valley between two low mountains,
then it comes out into another village named
Jash inhabited by the Sanghi Sari tribe, who go
in the winter to their village Sanghi Sar, 12 miles
north-east of Samnan. Eight miles further the
valley of asaran was reached, which is well cul
tivated. There is a caravansarai and a few huts.
Three miles before reaching the caravansarai,
road going from south to Mazandaran was reach
ed. This road is much used for traffic in the
winter between the latter place and Samnan.
Fulhad Mahall^
hours' march. Road first winds into the
mountains, at the bottom of which are small
patches of cultivation. It then ascends a steep
mountain of a deep chalky soil to a pasturage,
which having crossed, it enters on a very remark
able tract of wild mountains. Leaving these
heights one comes to a pine forest and then into
the Rudbar valley with small patches of culti
vation ; then it goes over some mountains and
emerges into the Fulhad Mahalla plain, which is
of large extent, but very little cultivated owing
to the scarcity of water. Half-way an Imam-
zada Masuma is passed. Fulhad IVIahalla itself
is situated on a rising ground in the middle of
the plain, built all round like a fort; population
150 families. Two miles to south-west there is
a coal mine. From here there is a road going to
Darbar and to Mazandaran.
hours' march. General direction north-east.
Road is at first good, but in the winter is
said to be very muddy ; it follows a rivulet whicli
turns off to north, eight miles from Fulhad Mahal-
la. The river marked on St. John's map as
going to Samnan is wrong; no such river was
seen. Samnan is supplied with water from a
river on the other side of these mountains, and
from Sanghi Sar. Five miles from Fulhad
Mahalla there is a ruined and uninhabited village
called Nilu, near which some gypsies were
encamped with some brood mares. Eight miles
further are two villages—the first Agrabi, the
second Sorkhe D eh. They are a milea part from

About this item


The volume is a Government of India official publication entitled Routes in Persia. Section III. Compiled in the Intelligence Branch of the Quarter Master General's Department in India (Simla: printed at the Government Central Printing Office, 1898).

The volume contains details of all land routes (numbered 1-247) in Persia starting from Russian territory and extending south as far as a line drawn from Karmanshah [Kermānshāh] south-eastwards through Burujird [Borūjerd], Isfahan [Eşfahān] and Yazd to Karman [Kermān], and thence north-east to Khabis [Khabīş] and Neh to Lash Juwain [Lāsh-e Juwayn].

The information given for each route comprises:

  • number of route;
  • place names forming starting point and destination of route;
  • authority and date;
  • number of stage;
  • names of stages;
  • distance in miles (intermediate and total);
  • remarks (including precise details of the route, general geographical information, and information on smaller settlements, local peoples, agriculture, condition of roads, access to water, supplies of wood, and other routes).

An appendix within the volume (folios 356-359) and two separately-stored sets of loose sheets (containing routes numbers 77 (a) and 140-A, folios 363-369) give information too late for incorporation in the body of the work.

The volume also contains pockets attached to the front and back inside covers for maps. These consist of an index map showing the limits of each of the three sections of Routes in Persia (folio 2) and an index map to the routes in Section III (folio 361). There is also a fold-out map of the route from Seistan [Sīstān] to Mashad on folio 232.

An ink stamp on the front cover records the confidential nature of the publication and that it was being transmitted for the information of His Excellency the Viceroy (Victor Alexander Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin and 16th Earl of Kincardine) only.

Extent and format
1 volume (367 folios)

The volume contains an alphabetical cross index (folios 6-17), and an alphabetical index to names of places (folios 18-25).

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the front cover and terminates on the last page of the loose supplementary sheets (found in the small grey folder within the main folder); these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the volume also contains a printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'ROUTES IN PERSIA. SECTION III' [‎281r] (566/739), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F111/371, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 26 May 2020]

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