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'Muscat Dhows Arbitration. In the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague. Grant of the French Flag to Muscat Dhows. The case on behalf of the Government of His Britannic Majesty.' [‎59r] (128/208)

The record is made up of 1 volume (102 folios). It was created in 1904?-1905?. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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Sair or Sajir. At Rakhiout (17° 15' south by
53° 25' east), a place near this point, the Sultan's
Wali has built a fort. It is situate somewhat
to the west of Merbat, the port assigned ou
the French official map as the southern limit
of Oman, and at the western limits of the territory
of Dhofar, referred to on p. 35 of the French
Case. The position of Hakhiout, as ascertained
by Mr. Bent, the last European traveller who has
visited that region, is indicated on the map
annexed to t}iis Counter-Case.
From Hakhiout up to and beyond the town of
Muscat, the coast - line is continuously and
admittedly under the sovereignty of the Sultan
of Muscat. Siir, the district in which most of
the French proteges reside, is somewhat to the
north and west of Ras-el-Hadd, the easternmost
point of Arabia. North and west of the town
of Muscat the coast-line is under the undoubted
dominion of the Sultan, so far as Khor Kalba.
The maps in the French Case also assign to the
Sultan all the coast-line of Arabia, from Khor
Kalba up to Bahrein, and it is suggested that
Great Britain has since 1862 deprived the Sultan
of Muscat of his authority over the coast. This
suggestion is made in ignorance or disregard of
the history of the c ast in question. The Island
of Bahrein is coloured as part of Oman in Kiepert's
map of 1850. In 1779 it was conquered by the
Uttoobee tribe, by whom it has ever since been
held under allegiance at one time to Muscat,
and afterwards successively to the Wahabees, to
Turkey, and to Persia, and now it is independent.
G-reat Britain has had Treaties with Bahrein from
1820 to 1861, all of which are prior to the Anglo-
French Declaration. Since that date Great
Britain has had further Treaties with Bahrein.
The peninsula of El Katr, wrongly described as
Bahrein in Kiepert's map, has never been subject
to Oman, and has always been held by Arab
Starting from El Odeid, the coast to the south
and east up to a point where the mountains come
down to the sea between Tibba (Tibat) and
Sha'am or Shuam, known as the Pirate [coast,
has been and is in the hands of six Chiefs. In
order to put an end to piracy in the Persian
Gulf, and to open it to commerce. Great Britain,
so far back as 1806, commenced operations
against the Maritime Chiefs of the Pirate coast,
and against the Chief of Bahrein. In 1820
Treaties were also concluded with the Chiefs, who

About this item


This file consists of a number of printed reports relating to the arbitration over the granting of French flags to Muscat dhows:

  • A printed report in 1904 by the Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India, relating to the arbitration on the issue of French flags to Omani dhows. An agreement between Britain and France in 1862 committed both governments to respect the independence of the Sultan of Muscat.
  • Reply on behalf of the Government of His Britannic Majesty to the Supplementary Conclusions, presented on behalf of the Government of the French Republic and admitted by the tribunal on July 25, 1905.
  • The verdict (in French) of the arbitration tribunal.
  • Treaty Series (No. 3, 1905) - Agreements between the United Kingdom and France referring to arbitration the question of the grant of the French flag to Muscat Dhows.
  • The section on the geography of Oman (ff 58-59A) discusses the French claim with reference to Kiepert's map of 1850. Includes a sketch map of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and Arabian Coast (folio 91A).
Extent and format
1 volume (102 folios)
Physical characteristics

Description: The foliation sequence commences at the title page and terminates at the last folio; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Foliation errors: 1, and 1A; 50, and 50A; 59, and 59A; 84, and 84A-C; 88, and 88A; 91, and 91A. Pagination: A number of original typed pagination sequences are also located in the file.

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English and French in Latin script
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'Muscat Dhows Arbitration. In the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague. Grant of the French Flag to Muscat Dhows. The case on behalf of the Government of His Britannic Majesty.' [‎59r] (128/208), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/406, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 26 August 2019]

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