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'VOL. B. 60. CONFIDENTIAL 86/14 - vi. BAHRAIN UNALLOTTED AREA.' [‎21r] (46/466)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (229 folios). It was created in 5 Jul 1939-1 Nov 1941. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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f
Dated
From
17 tti Jamadi-^al-rnani^ 135d *
4td August, 1909.
Shaiicd Aoduj.lah din Qasim al-Thani G.I.E.,
Ruler of Q.atar,
To
qatar*
The Hon•die Leit.-Col., Sir Trenohard Fowle^
K»G»X*E*f G • o * X • *,
Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ^
■Rushire *
After Compliments
I regret to inform you that I was greatly
disappointed at what Your Honour mentioned in your
esteemed letter No.S/639 dated 11th July, 1939, correspond*
to the 23rd Jamadi-al-Aval, 135d, namely, that His Majesty # s
Government directed you to inform me that in their opinion
the Hawar Islands delong to Bahrain State and not to the
State of qatar*
Naturally enough I was deeply astonished at the
news and in my astonishment tried to find the cause for
what Fis Majesty's Government have made the dasis of their
opinion on this question while I had provided them with
proofs, evidences, and contexts which I thought were adequate
to clarify the correct position and conditions of these
§
Islands. Is it acceptable 0 Yur Honour t to say that the
Islands which are considered the completing part of the
Qatar State on the north side, delong to Bahrain ^tate
and not to the State of %atar ? It is Known to Your Honour
that the Hawar Islands belonged to the ^tar State from
the very day when God created them and have remained Qatar
territory up this day; that they do not Delong to Bahrain
according to their natural and geographical position; that
ne ither
they/were detached from their mother <*atar, nor did they
cut off themseves from her; and the Government of Bahrain
neither conq.uered nor invaded them except in recent times
when they found circumstances to he favourable and trans
gressed on the Islands with a view to usurping them under a
*
false claim which is contrary to all facts and principles.
/I was

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Content

The volume comprises correspondence between the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Charles Geoffrey Prior), the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain (Hugh Weightman, Reginald George Evelin Alban), the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. (Roland Tennyson Peel, John Percival Gibson), the Admiralty (Clifford George Jarrett), the Shaikh of Bahrain (Shaikh Ḥamad bin ‘Īsá Āl Khalīfah), and the Bahrain Petroleum Company (Hamilton R Ballantyne) and discusses the conclusion of negotiations in London for a political agreement to accompany the concession secured by the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO) from the Shaikh of Bahrain for the unalloted area of Bahrain.

The correspondence focuses primarily on the question of whether a pre-emption clause is required in the political agreement or whether a force majeure clause would be an acceptable alternative given His Majesty’s Government’s likely need for oil in wartime and other emergencies. The negotiations were concluded in June 1941 with the concession agreement being signed in Bahrain 19 June 1941 and the Political Agreement signed in London 29 June 1941.

Other correspondence discusses a request made by the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO) to accelerate their exploration work in the Unallotted area of Bahrain and the need for a final settlement of the terms of both the concession agreement and political agreement in order to support the company’s acceleration proposal.

Also discussed is the drilling work undertaken by BAPCO in order to obtain structural information on their newly acquired concession area. The drilling work undertaken had also succeeded in finding drinking water on Fasht al Jibal [Fasht ad Dībal] and their intention to drill on Hawar Island included the intention to create water wells should drinking water be found there too. The correspondence concludes with the decision taken by BAPCO in 1941 to suspend their exploration work in new areas owing to a lack of available labour and to concentrate instead on their existing production and refining activities.

Another topic under discussion in the volume is the question of the ownership of the Hawar Group of Islands with His Majesty’s Government reaching a decision in August 1939 that the Hawar Group of Islands belonged to Bahrain and not Qatar. Correspondence includes the Shaikh of Qatar (Shaikh ‘Abdullāh bin Jāsim Āl Thānī)’s dissatisfaction at the outcome.

Later correspondence from 1941 includes the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain and the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. expressing their concerns over the decision that was reached and suggesting that the evidence be reconsidered and an expert in that area such as Sir Clive Kirkpatrick Daly be consulted for his opinion on the question.

As part of the discussions a request is made to the Air Vice-Marshall, Commanding British Forces in Iraq for a photographic mosaic to be taken of the Hawar Group of Islands. The mosaic was required in order to determine a line of division between the territorial rights of Bahrain and Qatar.

Also discussed was the question of ownership of the island of Fasht Dibal [Fasht ad Dībal], which was at that time claimed by Bahrain; regarding the Political Resident’s scepticism regarding the validity of Bahrain’s claim and the question of whether the Shaikh of Qatar should be given the opportunity to put forward any claim he had towards the island.

One other matter of note within the volume relates to reports and rumours of attempts by Turkish officials at Hasa to secure their authority over the district they controlled. These attempts were alleged to include Turkish officials visiting Zakhnuniya Island [Jazirat az Zakhnūnīyah] to try and convince the Dowasir tribe there to swear allegiance to Turkey; it is claimed their intention was to take control of Dohah [Doha], and perhaps the whole Katar [Qatar] peninsula from the Shaikh of Qatar. The alleged movements of Turkish officials on Zakhnuniya Island resulted in an official protest being made by the Shaikh of Bahrain who considered the island to be part of his territory.

A series of file notes which were maintained as a record of the correspondence in the volume can be found at folios 214-227.

Extent and format
1 volume (229 folios)
Arrangement

The volume contains a table of contents on folio 4 comprising of subject headings and page references. The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the front to the rear of the file.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside of the front cover, and terminates at the inside back cover; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. An additional foliation sequence is present in parallel between ff 188-227; these numbers are also written in pencil, and can be found in the same position as the main sequence, but they are not circled. A previous foliation sequence, which is also circled, has been superseded and therefore crossed out.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'VOL. B. 60. CONFIDENTIAL 86/14 - vi. BAHRAIN UNALLOTTED AREA.' [‎21r] (46/466), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/693, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100025657402.0x00002f> [accessed 7 December 2019]

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