'The Trucial Chiefs, 1908-28' [53r] (1/8)
The record is made up of 1 file (4 folios). It was created in 4 Oct 1928. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
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INDIA OFFICE The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors.
THE TRUCIAL CHIEFS,
1908 - 28 .
1. It is not proposed in this meinorundum to enter in any detail into the
internal history of the Trucial States, but rather to deal in a general way with
the developments which have taken place in the last 20 years, and tne
problems presented by the States as matters stand to-day.
2. The Trucial Chiefs—so-called on account of the treaties of maritime
truce concluded by them between 1820 and 1853 with His Majesty’s
Government, under which a check was imposed on their internecine strife
and their piratical and slaving activities in the Gulf—are the Sheikhs of
Ras-al-Khaima, Umm-al-Qaiwain, Ajman, Shargah, Dabai, Abu Dhabi and
El Katr. The last-named Principality, the history of which between 1908
and 1916 is separately dealt with in the Note on p. ^ was added to the
number of the Trucial States consequent on the conclusion* on 3rd November
1916 of a treaty between the Sheikh and His Majesty’s Government, under
which His Majesty’s Government recognised the independence of El Katr
and, in return for certain undertakings, extended to it the benefit of the
guarantees contained in the Trucial Treaties. The territory ruled over by
the Trucial Sheikhs at the present day lies on the Arab littoral of the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , between the west side of the Promontory of El Katr (or
Qatar) and approximately the north point of the Musandim Promontory in
Oman (compare Map 11 appended to this Memorandum).
3. The Trucial States remain independently administered tribal princi
palities, governed by independent Arab Sheikhs. The Trucial Treaties (the
substance of which is given in the precis of treaty engagements printed as
an Appendix to this Memorandum) accord to the contracting parties the
right to accredit a representative on the one side at the headquarters of the
several Chiefs, and on the other at the British Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. at Bushire ;
but in practice the Chiefs have no representatives, and His Majesty’s
Government are represented only by a native agent Non-British agents affiliated with the British Government. of the Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. at
Bushire, who is stationed at Shargah, on the Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. , and moves
from place to place as required.
4. Responsibility for the political control of the States rested up to the
end of the war with the Government of India. The Masterton-Smith
Committee made no specific reference to them, but, on the general principle
underlying the recommendations of that Committee, the affairs of the States
would appear to continue to be primarily the concern of the Government of
India, subject to the ultimate control of His Majesty’s Government, save
when they involve or touch on major questions of policy involving relations
with Ibn Sand, or affecting the Arabian policy of His Majesty’s Government.
In that case they fall to be dealt with directly by His Majesty’s Government
through the Colonial Cilice.
5. Save in respect of the Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. Agent at Shargah, there appears to
be no political expenditure in connection with the Sheikhs. No subsidies
are or have been paid to any of their number, although the grant of a
subsidy to the Sheikh of El Katr was considered and ultimately rejected in
connection with the negotiation of the treaty concluded with him on the
3rd November 1916.|
II.—Internal History, 1908-28.
6. The internal history of the Trucial States in the last 20 years is of no
general interest or importance, and it is unnecessary to recapitulate it here.
The incident of most importance in the pre-war period was an undertaking
by the Sheikhs not to give pearling or sponge fishing concessions,J save with
the prior approval of His Majesty’s Government. During the war the
Sheikhs adopted a friendly attitude ; and, broadly speaking, they have
satisfactorily implemented their engagements to His Majesty’s Government
in matters such as the arms trallic and the slave trade. His Majesty’s
'Government have consistently avoided entanglement in their internal affairs,
3091a 75 10.28 A
t Tel. from S. of S.
for I. to Viceroy,
Sept. 9 1915,
I P. 20G2/U,
About this item
Memorandum providing an overview of the external developments which took place in the Trucial States, covering 1908-28, and how problems presented by the States stand at the time of writing.
- introduction – to the memorandum itself; Trucial Chiefs; administration; responsibility of political control by the Government of India; and political expenditure;
- internal History, 1908-28 – noting it is not to be repeated in this memorandum, but does include a section on an agreement concerning oil concessions;
- external developments affecting the Trucial Sheikhs, 1908-28 – the rise of Ibn Saud [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd] and activity of the Wahabis [Wahhabis]; the reassertion of Persian authority in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , particularly Henjam; and Persia challenging the independence of Trucial Chiefs, particularly Tamb;
It includes a summary detailing the problem of Ibn Saud and the Wahabi [Wahhabi] movement, the question of an Imperial air route along the north Arabian coast, and the importance of British influence in the Gulf. A list of points referred to in connection with the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Sub-Committee, and the view expressed by the Government of India are also given.
Written by John Gilbert Laithwaite of the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. .
- Extent and format
- 1 file (4 folios)
This file consists of a single memorandum.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: the foliation sequence for this description commences at f 53, and terminates at f 56, as it is part of a larger physical volume; these numbers are written in pencil, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.
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