'The Trucial Chiefs, 1908-28' [53v] (2/8)
The record is made up of 1 file (4 folios). It was created in 4 Oct 1928. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
Letters f rom I’ol.
Res. to (t. of I.,
P. 1472; Mav 10
1922, P. 2537 :
May 19 1922,
* Tel. from Viceroy,
Aug. 1 1913,
P. 3082 -3/13.
Cp. Lor. i., 189-93.
t Pol. Res. to Iba
Sand, Sept. 11 1913,
P. A. Bahrein to
Pol. Kes., Dec. 20
1913, P. 4 78/14.
t P. 3439/16.
§ Letter from Pol.
Res. to G. of L,
May 13 1921,
|| Letter from Pol.
lies, to G. of I.,
Nov. 10 1922,
* R.C. Iraq to G.
of I., Jan. 19 1923,
and have confined themselves to recognising successions (too frequently
secured by assassination), subject to formal acceptance by the Sheikh affected
of the treaty obligations undertaken by his predecessor. *
7. In view of the importance of the oil question it should be placed on ®
record that the Trucial Sheikhs of Shargah, Ras-al-Khaima, Dabai, Abu
Dhabi, Ajman and Umm-al-Qaiwain agreed in 1022 not to grant a concession
in the event of oil being found in their territories, save with the permission
of His Majesty s Government. No question of a concession has so far arisen.
( onsiderable discussion has, however, taken place between the Sheikh of El
Katr (who is precluded by Article 5 of his Treaty of 3rd December 1916
from granting any concession without the approval of His Majesty’s
Government), and various oil interests affected in regard to the grant of
a concession in his territory; and an option for 18 months in which to
negotiate for an oil concession was granted by him to the Anglo-Persian
Oil Company in March 1926. The negotiations have throughout been
conducted under the close supervision and with the approval of His
III.—External Developments affecting the Trucial Sheikhs, 1908-28.
8. The developments in relation to the Sheikhs of most importance
during the period now in question have been external. They are
(а) The rise of Ibn Saud.
(б) The recent reassertion of Persian authority in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
Ibn Saud and the Trucial Sheikhs.
9. As will be seen from the Foreign Office Memorandung of 1908 the
Wahabi connection with the Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. is of long standing, althoimh for
many years prior to 1913 it had ceased to be of any political importance.
Put the conquest of Ifasa by Ibn Saud in 1913 again brought the Wahabi
movement directly in touch with the Trucial Sheikhs.- To" their territory
as to El Katr, Ibn Saud maintained a hereditary claim. He was, however’
warned by . the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. of the special treaty relations between
His Majest\ s Government and the Irucial Sheikhs,j* and he maintained an
entilely correct attitude towards them during the following years. Py the
treaty of 26th December 1915, Ibn Saud undertook to abstain from
aggression on or interference with the Trucial Sheikhdoms, or with El
Kati, + and that instrument formally governed his relations with the States
until the conclusion of the Treaty of Jeddah in the spring of 1927.
10. No incident of importance appears to have arisen as between Ibn
oaud and the Irucial States until after the European W ar. In 1921§ the
Sheikh of El Katr represented that he was alarmed at the prospect of some
of his townspeople becoming Akhwan and joining Ibn Saud, and asked
whether Government would help him should he be attacked from the
interior. He was informed in reph’’ that Government were not prepared to
promise more than diplomatic assistance should he be attacked by Ibn Saud.
At the end ol 1922 the Sheikh again represented!! that, while he did not
eai an open attack by Ibn Saud so long as the latter remained on good
terms with His Majesty’s Government, he was seriously alarmed by the
more subtle methods employed, he alleged, by the Nejd authorities to make
Ins position impossible. The Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. commented that he did not
see any practicable means to prevent peaceful penetration of the country by
tie Akhwan and Ibn Sand’s adherents. He suggested that a hint might
be given to Ibn Saud to keep his people in order. No action was taken on
t ns proposal. Sir Percy Cox, then High Commissioner in Iraq, reporting!!
that, on finding that Ibn Saud was apparently including the Katr Peninsula
within the tract of country for which he was prepared to negotiate an oil
concession he had already very recently “ taken him to task, reminding him
p n ? tlun £ to ( 1° Katr, except to respect it, under the terms
oi ms treaty with us, and insisting on the limitation of his discussions to the
coun ry west of the longitude of Salwah Hay, His Highness accepted this
injunction without argument.” The Sheikh has maintained his independence.
About this item
Memorandum providing an overview of the external developments which took place in the Trucial States, covering 1908-28, and how problems presented by the States stand at the time of writing.
- introduction – to the memorandum itself; Trucial Chiefs; administration; responsibility of political control by the Government of India; and political expenditure;
- internal History, 1908-28 – noting it is not to be repeated in this memorandum, but does include a section on an agreement concerning oil concessions;
- external developments affecting the Trucial Sheikhs, 1908-28 – the rise of Ibn Saud [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd] and activity of the Wahabis [Wahhabis]; the reassertion of Persian authority in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , particularly Henjam; and Persia challenging the independence of Trucial Chiefs, particularly Tamb;
It includes a summary detailing the problem of Ibn Saud and the Wahabi [Wahhabi] movement, the question of an Imperial air route along the north Arabian coast, and the importance of British influence in the Gulf. A list of points referred to in connection with the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Sub-Committee, and the view expressed by the Government of India are also given.
Written by John Gilbert Laithwaite of the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. .
- Extent and format
- 1 file (4 folios)
This file consists of a single memorandum.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: the foliation sequence for this description commences at f 53, and terminates at f 56, as it is part of a larger physical volume; these numbers are written in pencil, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.
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