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'Memorandum by the Rev. G. P. Badger on the Pretensions of Persia in Beloochistan and Mekran, drawn up with especial reference to her Claim to Gwadur and Charbar' [‎9r] (17/20)

The record is made up of 1 file (10 folios). It was created in Dec 1863. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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18. Choubar, Mr. Badger states, was taken by Syud Sultan, grandfather of
Choubar t ! le P resent Ruler, “ about a century ago, and has
since remained in his possession.” With the limited
experience which I possess on Muscat and Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. affairs, compared to this
gentleman, I could not venture to argue upon other premises than these. And
viewed in this light, there can be no cause to dispute the Sovereignty of the
Imaum, acquired by right of conquest. Whether there be any subsequent terms
or treaties modifying the title, I cannot, however, pretend to say. Judging from
the great stress laid by the Persian Government upon the non-extension of our
Telegraph westward of Choubar without the authority of the Shah, I should think
it more than probable that Choubar does belong exclusively to the Imaum.
19. Government have done me the honour to put to me a question of great
* Without special instructions. importance. I have not the data to make a satis
factory reply, nor do I feel authorized* to make,
and await the references which alone could enable me to do so. Mahomed Ali
and Been Mahomed of Bhao, Abdul Rhyman of Jeonee, Meer Abdullah of Gaik,
and others have yet to tell their tale. The first two, it may be noted, are Judgals
of the same Semma family as the Jam of Bela, our immediate neighbour. ^My
humble opinion on the subject, with the data available, may be briefly summarized
in the following paragraph :—
20. Persia has, of late years, encroached upon territory of which, though her
sovereign rights are questionable, her claim to possession is fully equal to that of
any Government stronger than that of the petty Chiefs themselves whom she sub
jugates. Any interference from without to stop her career, if admissible under the
laws and lawful practice of nations should have been exercised long since; but she
has now reached a point vital, as it were, to British India, and should be checked
at the first good opportunity. Necessity for protecting our telegraphs ; Persia’s
own wish expressed to our Minister at her Court for adjustment of boundary ; the
acknowledgment of Khelat as an independent State allied to England; all these
circumstances show that the present time is most opportune to decide on a line of
Paragraph of Report on Mek- boundary for Western Mekran. The Dusht Khor
ran Eoute of 22d February 1862. seems to otter an appropriate starting point from
the sea side. From hence a line might be run
towards Seistan, eastward of which Persia’s interference might be held infraction
of treaty. A line of road within the Khelat territory, opening out the Herat trade
vvith Gwadur, a port in the same longitude as Herat, should, I submit, be a con
sideration for boundary Commissioners on the part of Great Britain. As to
Khelat, her claim to any portion of Western Mekran, hitherto unaffected by late
Persian aggression, is based, as a general rule, on right of prior conquest not yet
annulled by later events. And finally, the question of Gwadur is one between
Muscat and Khelat only, with which Persia has no concern, and in which Govern
ment has already recorded an opinion, though not declared to be decisive.
I have the honour to be, &c.,
(Signed) F. J. Goldsmid., Lieut.-Colonel,
Dated 19th December 1863. . On special duty.
P. S. 22d December 1863.
Since writing the above, I have read through a file of correspondence connected with a
recent communication to Government by the Reverend Mr. Badger. It relates to a Treaty
concluded between the Persian Government and Imaum of Muscat in 1856. The perusal of
these papers convinces me more than ever of the truth of the conclusions submitted prior to
seeing them, and arrived at quite independently. As regards Meer Abdullah of Gaik, alluded
to by Mr. Badger, I would deferentially call attention to my 19th paragraph. We have yet to
learn his story of his own rights and grievances.
By a recent letter from the Acting Resident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , forwarding a Despatch
from Her Majesty's Envoy in Teheran, shown to me yesterday, I have also learnt that an
objection is now raised by Persia to the use of Gwadur as a Telegraph Station by the British
authorities, under sanction of the Imaum of Muscat. Should there be any fair ground of
objection stated, and any new right or title to the above Port have become apparent, I would
ask permission to see the enclosure, which did not accompany Colonel Petty s letter when lent
to me for perusal.
(Signed) F. J. Goldsmid, Lieut.-Colonel,
On special duty.
C 3
Bombay, 22d December 1863.

About this item


This file consists of a memorandum by George Percy Badger (scholar and missionary) concerning Persian claims in Beloochistan [Baluchistan] and Mekran [Makran], particularly Gwadel or Gwadur [Gwādar] and Charbar [Chābahār]. It contains the following: a history of Persian encroachments in Beloochistan; a table outlining the political divisions of the maritime provinces of Mekran, and their respective governments; an assessment of Persia's jurisdiction on the Mekran Coast; details of the sovereignty of Gwadur; a discussion of hostilities between Persia and the Sultan of Muscat over Bunder Abbas [Bandar-e ʻAbbās] and other dependencies; a summary of the 1856 treaty between Persia and Muscat. A map depicting the political geography of Mekran is included on folio 5.

The appendices include:

  • a translation of the treaty between His late Highness Seyyed Saeed [Āl Bū Sa‘īd, Sayyid Thuwaynī bin Sa‘īd] and the Persian Government, relating to Bunder Abbas, etc., dated 1856;
  • a report by Lieutenant-Colonel Frederic John Goldsmid on the claims of Persia, Khelat [Kalat], and Muscat, to sovereign rights on the Mekran Coast;
  • extracts from Lieutenant-Colonel Goldsmid's diaries on defining boundaries and districts;
  • a memorandum on Western Mekran by Lieutenant-Colonel Goldsmid.
Extent and format
1 file (10 folios)

This file consists of a single memorandum (f 1-5), with appendices at the back (f 6-10).

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1, and terminates at the last folio with 10; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'Memorandum by the Rev. G. P. Badger on the Pretensions of Persia in Beloochistan and Mekran, drawn up with especial reference to her Claim to Gwadur and Charbar' [‎9r] (17/20), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/18/C68, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 15 November 2019]

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